Assuriyawa masu taimako

Ayyukan Assuriyawa a gidan kayan gargajiya na Burtaniya

Ina matukar son labarin kuma kodayake ina sha'awar Masar, amma wayewar Gabas ta Tsakiya na haifar da rikici, Assuriyawa a cikinsu.

Asalin Assuriyawa an haife shi kuma ya haɓaka tsakanin tsakiyar Zamanin Tagulla da ƙarshen Ironar baƙin ƙarfe, a cikin kwarin kogin Tigris, sanannen Feran Crescent. Kadan ya rage daga gine-ginen sa, amma har yau sun tsira da kyau sassaucin ra'ayi wanda ya bamu damar sanin wannan almara garin.

Masu Assy

Garin Assuriya

Yin karatun tarihi na Littafi Mai-Tsarki ana hasashen cewa Assuriyawa za su fito ne daga ɗa daga cikin jikokin Nuhu, Assur. Yanzu, lokacin da mutum ya san cewa labarin Nuhu ya girmi dubun dubata kuma akwai wani labarin makamancin wannan wanda ke nuna wani Utnapishtin ... abubuwa suna canzawa kuma waɗancan sassan har zuwa yanzu suna cikin hadari mai ban mamaki.

An kuma ce babban birnin Assuriya a kusan kusan kasancewar wannan mutane,  garin Assur, an sanya masa suna ne bayan wani allah a wajajen karni na uku BC. Assur, Assuriya, wanda fassarar Littafi Mai-Tsarki ta kasance daga baya kuma tana da alaƙa da haɓakar Kiristanci a yankin.

Rushewar Assuriya

Gaskiyar magana ita ce Assuriyawa sun kasance Bayahude waɗanda suka fara magana da Acadian har zuwa lokacin da aka karɓi mafi sauƙin yaren Aramaic. Marubutan tarihi sunyi magana akan uku manyan lokaci na Assuriya: Tsohon Masarauta, Daula da Marigayi Liman, kodayake akwai bambance-bambance game da waɗannan banbancin.

Abinda duk suka yarda dashi shine Daular Assuriya tana ɗaya daga cikin manyan daulolin Mesopotamiya ta hanyar ci gaban da ya nuna ta fuskar Stateasa da faɗaɗa sojoji. Kuma game da zane-zane na Assuriya?

Harshen Assuriya

Gidan kayan gargajiya na Burtaniya

Lokacin da gari ya ci gaba, zane-zane yana daga cikin abubuwan da ke nuna wannan ci gaban. Dangane da fasahar Assuriyawa mun san shi daga abin da ya fito da haske daga kango na tsoffin garuruwa daban-daban a cikin Mesopotamia.

Archaeologists sun gano ragowar gidajen ibada, gidajen sarauta da birane don haka an san hakan Ayyukan fasaha na Assuriya suna nuna cikakken ci gaban kakanninsu, fasahar Sumerian. Matsalar gine-gine a wannan ɓangaren na duniya shine cewa sunyi amfani da adobe da yawa tunda dutse da katako kayan aiki ne ƙanana, don haka rayuwarsu akan lokaci ta talauce.

Saukowar Assuriya

Sa'a kuwa ita ce An yi wasu kayan taimako na Assuriya a cikin dutse don haka wadanda suka shiga hannun zamani. Don gine-gine gaba ɗaya sun yi amfani da adobe da dutsen tushe amma an yi ado bangon ciki ko na waje da adon dutse tare da zane da zane Sunyi magana game da daular da nasarorin ta.

Dutse daga yankin yana da kyau ga waɗannan faranti amma yana da kyau don yin zane-zane don haka akwai 'yan misalai na wannan fasahar, amma Assuriyawa sun koyi sare dutsen a cikin siraran bakin ciki kuma shi ya sa kayan kwalliyar-fure a cikin farar ƙasa ko alabaster, farin dutse wanda yake da yawa a cikin Tigris), sune wadanda muka fi gani.

Assuriyawa masu taimako

Assuriyawa a cikin gidan kayan gargajiya na Burtaniya

Mafi yawansu sune bas-reliefs da na waje suna da jigogi na duniya, ma’ana, ba ruwansu da addinin Assuriyawa. Suna wakiltar nasarorin soja, al'amuran daji, dabbobi, rayuwar soja, da sauransu.

Idan ka je London zaka ga ɗayan mafi kyaun taimako na Assuriyawa. Gidan Tarihi na Birtaniyya yana da tarin kayan taimako na Assuriyawa kuma a cikinsu akwai wanda ya fito na zakoki, na miji da mata, suna mutuwa. An samo shi a cikin kangon Fadar Nineveh kuma wani ɓangare ne na babban filin. An yi imanin cewa an yi shi ne a kusan 668 BC a ƙarƙashin mulkin Assurbanipal.

Ruhun kariya

A gaskiya ma, Rushewar Nineveh ta kasance wurin zane-zane na fasahar Assuriyawa kuma a cikin gidan kayan tarihin akwai wani taimako da ake kira Ruhun kariya wannan ya fito ne daga Fadar Assurbanipal II, ta Marigayi Daular, kuma hakan ana ganin zai kawata gidajen masu mallakar sarki: mutumin da yake da fika-fikai ya kasance apkallu, halittar da ba ta dace ba da aka bayyana a cikin rubutun cuneiform, tare da hular kwano, doguwar riga, gashin baki, gemu da dogon gashi.

Duk da yake taimako na waje na fasaha ce mara kyau kayan agaji waɗanda suka kawata ganuwar ciki na fadojin galibi suna wakiltar rayuwa a cikin gida, mafi dadi. A wani gidan sarauta, na Khorsabad, alal misali, an samo sama da mita dubu biyu na kwandon shara tare da maza, dawakai da kifaye, waɗanda aka yi su ta hanyar da ba ta dace ba, ba tare da ado da yawa ba.

Taimakon Assuriya na zaki

Dole ne a ce haka la ra'ayin hangen nesa baya cikin fasahar Assuriya har yanzu ya bunkasa sosai kuma girman adadi na iya bambanta inda mai zane yake sha'awar sanya lafazin. Gidan Tarihi na Birtaniyya yana da mafi kyawun mafi kyawun kayan masarufi na Assuriyawa, haka kuma Kewaye da Kama da Lachish wani kuma ya kamata ku gani.

An samo kwamitin ne a Fadar Sennacherib, Nineveh, arewacin abin da ke Iraki yanzu, kuma ya kasance na zamanin Marigayi Daular ne. Abin farin ciki ne alabaster yanki na 182 x 880 cm.

Fadar Nineba

Yana daga cikin kayan adon gidan sarki Sennakerib wanda yayi sarauta tsakanin 704 da 681 BC kuma yana wakiltar yadda sojojin Assuriya suka afkawa Lakish dauke da kursiyi, karusai da sauran kayan sarki a cikin birni.

Wannan lokacin tarihin Assuriya yana da matukar alfanu kamar yadda yake A lokacin ƙarni na XNUMX da na XNUMX sarakunan Assuriyawa suka ci Tekun Fasha da iyakokin Masar. Sun gina a wancan lokacin mafi girman gine-gine, kamar gidan sarki, a cikin Nineba, kuma daga kangon wannan birni ne mafi yawan dukiyar Ingilishi ke zuwa.

Sake ginin fadar Nineba

Ka tuna cewa wadannan zane-zane na Assuriya an fentin su da launuka, 'yan kaɗan ne suka rayu kuma suka ba wasu damar tsammani, amma kuma zane ya kasance kamar kayan wasan kwaikwayo na zamani: farawa, tsakiya da ƙarshe ko'ina cikin bangon.

Masu sana'a ne suka sassaka su tare da kayayyakin ƙarfe da tagulla. Masu ilmin kimiya na kayan tarihi sun ɗauka cewa an kare kayan masarufin na waje da fenti ko wani varnar saboda sauƙin ruwan sama da iska suna lalata dutse. Hakanan, ba su kadai bane kuma a matsayin ado an cika su da zane-zane da tubalin gilashi.

Birnin Nineveh

An yi imani da abubuwan taimako na Assuriya sun kai kololuwa a lokacin mulkin Assurbanipal II, XNUMX karni na BC, amma an kiyaye al'adar a duk gine-ginen masarauta a garuruwan da aka haifa daga baya.

A yau za mu iya jin daɗin gadonsa a cikin gidajen tarihin duniya, Gidan Tarihi na Birtaniyya musamman, amma da fatan wata rana za mu iya tafiya cikin lumana zuwa Gabas ta Tsakiya har ma mu bi ta ƙasa ɗaya kamar Assuriyawa, Sumerians da sauran muhimman mutanen zamanin. Zai zama abin ban mamaki.

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