Misalai 15 na gine-ginen Romanesque a Spain

cardona

La Romanesque gine a Spain Yana daya daga cikin mafi arziki kuma mafi bambancin a duniya. Kamar yadda kuka sani, shine babban salon fasaha na farko wanda ya fito a cikin Zamani Turawa kuma suka mamaye ginin har zuwan da Gothic.

Duk da haka, farkonsa bai bayyana sarai ba. A ra'ayin masana, akwai Romanesque na farko ko Lombard wanda zai fara kusan karni na 9 kuma a marigayi Romanesque wanda zai fara ƙarni biyu daga baya kuma zai wuce iyakar karni na 15 don zama tare na ɗan lokaci tare da Gothic da aka ambata. Na gaba, za mu nuna muku misalai XNUMX na gine-ginen Romanesque a Spain. Amma da farko muna so mu yi magana da ku game da halayen da yake gabatarwa.

Menene Romanesque

Gidan Loarre

Babban gini na Loarre

Saboda haka, Romanesque shine salon al'adu da fasaha na farko da aka kirkira ta wayewar Turai da Kirista. Hasali ma, yawancin ayyukansa suna da alaƙa da duniyar addini. Game da gine-gine, galibin gine-ginensa ne majami'u, monasteries da abbeys, ko da yake su ma an gina su garuruwa da garu.

Za mu iya cewa ta fito lokaci guda a kasashe da yankuna da dama (Francia, España, tsibirin Italiya da yankunan Jamus). Amma kasancewarsu kamanni yana da alaƙa da yawa umarnin addini kamar na Cistercian da Cluny, wanda, a cikin fadada ta a fadin nahiyar, ya kai shi ko'ina. Hakanan, gabaɗayan fasahar Romanesque ya rinjayi ta Hajji zuwa Santiago de Compostela daga duka Turai.

Wadannan abubuwa biyu sun inganta gina sababbin majami'u da gidajen ibada a wurare daban-daban tare da ba da aiki ga masu sassaƙa da masu zane-zane waɗanda suka yi ado da haikalin.

Halayen gine-ginen Romanesque da misalai a Spain

Zagaye baka

Semicircular arches, ainihin abubuwan gine-ginen Romanesque

Mafi ƙanƙanta da asali mai mahimmanci na salon shine baka mai madauwari ko rabin da'ira. Kuma, kusa da wannan, ganga ko tanda (quarter sphere) don rufe gine-gine. Bugu da kari, wadannan sun fi na baya kafin Romanesque.

A gefe guda, a matsayin tallafi, ana kuma amfani da su Silinda ko ginshiƙai masu juyawa. Amma shugabannin haikalin, an yi su a ciki rabin ganga kuma an yi musu ado da baka da makada (waɗanda ake kira Lombard arches, waɗanda su ne makafi na asali). Rufin yana da ban mamaki kuma, sau da yawa, cikin tashin hankali, wato, tare da ci gaba da raguwa zuwa ciki. Kuma, a matsayin albarkatun kasa, ana amfani da dutse, yawanci ba a goge ba. A ƙarshe, riga a cikin marigayi Romanesque, sun sanya kayan ado na ado a kan facades.

Waɗannan su ne, faɗin magana, halayen gine-ginen Romanesque a ciki España da sauran Turai. Da zarar an yi bayani, za mu ga misalai 15 mafi kyau a cikin ƙasarmu.

Cathedral na Santiago de Compostela, fasahar Romanesque a Spain ta ayyana Gidan Tarihi na Duniya

Catedral de Santiago

Cathedral na Santiago de Compostela, watakila mafi kyawun misali na gine-ginen Romanesque a Spain

Yana ɗaya daga cikin manyan misalan gine-ginen Romanesque a Spain kuma an rarraba shi azaman Kayan Duniya tun 1985. Gininsa ya fara a cikin karni na XNUMX, bayan rundunonin Almanzor Sun lalatar da tsohon haikalin. An keɓe shi a shekara ta 1211, kodayake ayyukan sun ci gaba a cikin ƙarni na XNUMX.

Hakazalika, wasu daga cikin ƙwararrun ƙwararru na lokacin sun yi aiki a can, kamar, alal misali, Bernard da Dattijo ko malamai Esteban da Mateo. To, zuwa ga na ƙarshe akwai maɗaukaka portico na daukaka. Duk da haka, wani daga cikin abubuwan al'ajabi na Cathedral, da Facade na Obradoiro Yana da baroque kuma saboda gine-gine Gidajen Novoa.

Katanga mai bango na Cardona castle

Gidan Cardona

Cardona Castle, a yau wurin shakatawa ne

Da yake cikin wannan garin a lardin Barcelona, ya kasance abin tunawa na kasa tun 1931. An fara gininsa a ƙarshen karni na XNUMX bisa tsari na Wifred da Gashi, Faudal ubangijin lokacin. Daga cikin gine-ginen da suka yi shi, da cocin San Vicente, amma kuma, a cikin masu zama, dakunan Golden da Mezzanine. Kuna iya ziyartar hadaddun har ma da zama a can, tunda yana aiki azaman wurin shakatawa.

Monastery na Santa María de Ripoll

Santa María de Ripoll

Monastery na Santa María de Ripoll

Ba mu bar Catalonia ba don gaya muku game da wannan abin al'ajabi na gine-ginen Romanesque a Spain wanda zaku samu a lardin Girona. Gidan sufi ne na Benedictine wanda aka kafa, kuma, ta Wifred da Gashi a kusa da shekara ta 880 kuma wanda ya kamata ya zama wurin binne ga kirga na Barcelona. Hakanan, a lokacin tsakiyar zamanai ya zama muhimmiyar cibiyar yada al'adu. Tun daga 1913 ya kasance Kadari na Ban sha'awa na Ƙasa.

Cocin San Clemente de Tahull

Saint Clement na Tahull

Cocin San Clemente de Tahull

Yanzu mun wuce zuwa lardin Lleida don nuna muku cocin San Clemente de Tahull, a cikin tsakiyar kwarin Bohí. A lokaci guda, yana samar da hadaddun da aka ayyana tare da sauran haikalin Romanesque a yankin. Kayan Duniya. Ya yi fice don cikakken shirin basilica kuma, sama da duka, don ban mamaki kararrawa na shida benaye, wanda shi ne square da freestanding da amsa ga Lombard Romanesque style.

Poblet Monastery

Poblet

Poblet Monastery, wani kayan ado na gine-ginen Romanesque a Spain

Haka kuma a lardin Tarragona Mun sami samfurori na ban mamaki na fasahar Romanesque a Spain. Ana daukar wannan gidan sufi a matsayin cikakken misali na abbey kuma an gina shi a karni na 12. Za ku same shi a cikin Basin Barberá, musamman, a cikin gundumar Vimbodí da kuma Poblet. An yi amfani da shi azaman pantheon na sarauta ta sarakunan ƙarshe na Kambin Aragon, shi ne kuma Kayan Duniya.

Cathedral na San Pedro de Jaca

Jaca Cathedral

San Pedro Cathedral a cikin Jaca

An fara gininsa a karni na 11, a daidai lokacin da ake gina Santiago. Wannan ba daidaituwa ba ne, amma sakamakon daukaka tafarkin aikin hajji, wanda suke so su haskaka ta hanyar temples masu ban sha'awa. An yi gyare-gyare daban-daban na gaba waɗanda suka rufe salon sa na Romanesque. Amma har yanzu ana iya gani, sama da duka, a cikin ciki da kuma ɗayan kofofinta.

Sufi na San Juan de la Peña

San Juan de la Pena

Babban sufi na San Juan de la Peña

Yana cikin yanayi mai ban sha'awa, domin yana ƙarƙashin wani katon dutse da aka huda don ya gina wasu ɗakuna. Misali, da cocin mozarabic. Na garin ne Botaya, a cikin Municipality na Dokin doki. Ya kuma zama kabari na da yawa sarakunan Aragon kuma yana cikin sashin Aragonese na Hanyar Santiago.

Gidan Loarre

Loarre sansanin soja

Panoramic na Loarre Castle

An kuma yi amfani da fasahar Romanesque don gina gine-ginen jama'a. Kyakkyawan misali na wannan shine gidan sarauta na Loarre, wanda zaku samu ba tare da barin lardin ba Huesca, domin yana cikin Yankin Hoya. A gaskiya ma, ita ce mafi mahimmanci kuma mafi kyawun adana Romanesque a cikin ƙasarmu. Ya kasance daga karni na 11 kuma a cikin hadaddun da hasumiyai na Homenaje da Sarauniya. A matsayin labari, za mu gaya muku cewa ya fito a cikin fina-finai kamar Sunan fure o mulkin sama.

Monastery na San Salvador de Leyre

Leyre gidan sufi

Monastery na San Salvador de Leyre

Yanzu mun matsa zuwa ga Foungiyar Foral ta Navarra don gano wannan wani abin al'ajabi na gine-ginen Romanesque a Spain. Gidan sufi ne na Benedictine da aka keɓe a cikin karni na 11 wanda ya yi aiki, kamar yadda a wasu lokuta da suka gabata, a matsayin pantheon na sarauta, a cikin wannan yanayin. sarakunan Navarre. Bugu da kari, ya kasance muhimmiyar cibiyar al'adu da ta ruhaniya a cikin Zamani.

Church of Santa María de Eunate

Saint Mary of Eunate

Cocin Santa María de Eunate

Ba mu bar Navarra don nuna muku wannan abin al'ajabi mai nisan kilomita biyu daga ba Muruzábal. An yi imani da cewa gininsa, wanda aka rubuta zuwa karni na 12, ya kasance saboda tsari na Haikali, ko da yake ba a yarda da shi ba. A matsayin fitattun fasaloli, muna ba da shawarar ku duba tsarin benensa na octagonal da sa na waje cloister.

Royal Collegiate Church of San Isidoro

Saint Isidore

Cocin Royal Collegiate na San Isidoro a León

Ta yaya zai zama in ba haka ba, Castile da Leon Yana da mafi kyawun misalan gine-ginen Romanesque a Spain. Wannan cocin collegiate yana cikin wannan birni na ƙarshe da aka ambata kuma ana ɗaukarsa ɗaya daga cikin mafi kyawun ginin wannan salon a ƙasarmu. Wasu daga cikin muhimman abubuwanta sune Royal Pantheon da zane-zanensa, Basilica na isidor tare da kofofinta na Rago da Gafara da gidan kayan gargajiya na alfarma art.

San Martin de Frómista

San Martin de Frómista

Cocin San Martín de Frómista

Muna ci gaba a Castilla y León, amma a lardin Palencia, don sanin wannan gidan ibada da aka kafa a shekara ta 1066 by Madam Magajin Gari, Countess of Castile. A waje, dome ɗinta na octagonal akan transept da ta hasumiya mai siliki biyu a kan facade. Amma na ciki, dubi cikin manyan manya hamsin na jiragen ruwa.

Cocin Collegiate na Santa Juliana

Cocin Collegiate na Santa Juliana

Babban cocin Santillana del Mar

Located in Cantabrian garin santillana del mar, an gina shi a ƙarni na 12 akan haikalin da ya gabata. Kuna son babban facade ɗin sa, tare da babban baka mai madauwari da, sama da shi, frieze mai wakiltar pantocrator. Har ila yau, a ciki, yana da nau'i arziki sculptural ado hali na marigayi Romanesque.

Gidan shakatawa na Romanesque na Santo Domingo de Silos

Romanesque cloister

Gidan shakatawa na Romanesque na Santo Domingo de Silos

The cloister na Burgos sufi na Saint Dominic of Silos An dauke shi daya daga cikin mafi kyawun gine-ginen Romanesque a Spain. An gina shi a tsakanin ƙarni na 11 da 12 kuma ya yi fice ga manyan biranensa kuma, sama da duka, don ban mamaki. bas-reliefs tare da motif na addini kamar Sanarwa, Fentikos ko shakkar Saint Thomas.

Cocin Collegiate na Santa María la Magajin gari

Toro Collegiate Church

Colegiate Church na Santa María la Mayor a Toro

Yanzu muna tafiya zuwa garin Zamora Toro don ganin cocin collegiate mai ban mamaki. Masu gininsa, waɗanda suka gina shi a cikin ƙarni na 12, sun sami wahayi ta hanyar Zamora Cathedral. Hakanan, ya zama misali ga tsohuwar mace Salamanca. Tabbatar kula da ƙofar arewa da ban mamaki barandar Mai Martaba, ko da yake wannan ya riga gothic. Bugu da ƙari kuma, a cikin sacristynsa akwai ƙarami gidan kayan gargajiya na alfarma art tare da flamenco guda.

A ƙarshe, mun nuna muku misalai 15 na Romanesque gine a Spain. Amma, kamar yadda za ku fahimta, akwai wasu da yawa. Misali, da Church of the True Cross en abin tunawa Segovia, da Colegiate Church of San Pedro de Cervatos a Cantabria ko kuma cocin Santa María la Real in Sanguesa (Navarra). Ku zo ku ga waɗannan gine-gine masu ban mamaki.


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