Hamadar Amurka

A cikin fina-finai da yawa a Amurka muna ganin sahara tare da masu kisan gilla, kaboyi, dillalan kwayoyi ko kuma mutane suna yin balaguro. The Hamadar Amurka suna ɗaya daga cikin wuraren da ake yin fim ɗin da suka fi shahara.

Amma menene su? Hamada nawa ne? Wadanne halaye suke da su? Duk wannan da ƙari a cikin labarinmu na yau: Hamadar Amurka.

Hamadar Amurka

A gabaɗaya layi da ƙarƙashin gilashin ƙara girman zamani, hamadar Amurka da arewacin Mexico an kasasu kashi hudu wanda ya dogara ne akan abubuwan da ke tattare da flora da rarrabawa, tarihin yanayin ƙasa na yankin, ƙasa da yanayin ma'adinai, haɓakawa da yanayin hazo.

Akwai manyan hamada guda hudu kuma uku daga cikinsu ana la'akari "Hamada mai zafi", ba wai kawai don suna da yanayin zafi sosai a lokacin rani ba amma saboda flora nasu yayi kama da juna. Hamada ta hudu ana daukarta a "Sayi hamada" saboda ya fi sanyi kuma flora ba ta da asali kamar na sauran ukun.

Babban Hamadar Basin

Wannan hamada ya mamaye wani yanki na Kilomita 492.098 don haka shi ne mafi girma a kasar. Hamada ce mai sanyi tare da zafi, bushewar bazara da lokacin sanyi wanda wani lokacin har dusar ƙanƙara ke iya yi. Wannan ya samo asali ne saboda kasancewar yana kan tsayi mai tsayi tun lokacin da ya ratsa sassa daban-daban na kasar kamar California, Utah, Oregon, Idaho da Arizona. Musamman, arewacin kashi uku na Nevada, yamma da kudancin Utah, kudanci na uku na Idaho, da kuma kudu maso gabashin Oregon.

Wasu kuma suna la'akari da shi ya haɗa da ƙananan yanki na yammacin Colorado da kudu maso yammacin Wyoming. Kuma a, zuwa kudu yana iyaka da hamadar Mojave da Sonora. A lokacin mafi yawan shekara hamada ya bushe sosai saboda tsaunukan Saliyo Nevada sun toshe zafi da ke fitowa daga Tekun Pasifik. A son sani? Yana da mafi tsufa rayayyun kwayoyin halitta da aka sani ga mutum, Pine Britkecone. An kiyasta wasu samfuran sun kai kusan shekaru 5.

Da yake magana game da ciyayi gabaɗaya, flora na wannan hamada iri ɗaya ce, tare da manyan nau'ikan shrub na kilomita da kilomita. Cactus? Kadan ne. Wannan sahara kuma yana da bangarori daban-daban. Tekun rairayin bakin teku ɗaya ne, tare da ayyukan nazarin ƙasa, Balarabe na Colorado tare da ƙa'idodin yanayin yanayin ƙasa da manyan tuddai, wani ne.

Hamadar Chihuahuan

Wannan jeji yana gudana tsakanin Amurka da Mexico kuma ya mamaye fili mai girman murabba'in kilomita 362.000. Yawancinsa yana cikin Mexico kuma a gefen Amurka ya mamaye wani yanki na Texas, Arizona da New Mexico.

Gaskiyar ita ce wannan jeji yana da yanayi na musamman kuma mai canzawa koyaushe. Hamada ce babu kowa amma har yanzu Yana da nau'ikan tsirrai da dabbobi da yawa. Akwai yuccas, akwai cacti, akwai bushes. Ciki kuma Big Bend National Park yana aiki da kuma Rio Grande ya ketare shi yana samar da isasshen ruwa kafin ya kwarara cikin Tekun Mexico.

Babban hamada ne. A cikin hunturu yanayin zafi yana da sanyi kuma a lokacin rani yana da zafi sosai. Yawancinsa suna samun ruwan sama kaɗan duk shekara kuma ko da yake ana iya yin ruwan sama a lokacin sanyi, lokacin damina shine lokacin rani.

Fuskar sa yana da wahala a rarrabe a fannin ilimin geologically, amma gabaɗaya akwai yawan dutsen farar ƙasa da ƙasa mai ƙasƙanci. Akwai daji da yawa, shine na al'ada daji hamada abin da muke gani a sinima, amma nau'in da ba a taɓa gani ba kaɗan ne. Dabbobi? Ana iya samun kyarkeci launin toka na Mexica.

Sonoran Desert

Wannan jejin Yana tafiya daga Mexico ta hanyar Arizona zuwa kudancin California. Ya mamaye wani yanki na kusan murabba'in kilomita 259 kuma yana iyaka da Desert Mojave, Plain Colorado da Range na Peninsular. Yankunan yanki sun haɗa da hamadar Colorado da Yuma.

Mafi ƙasƙanci a saman matakin teku shine Sea Salton, tare da matsayi mafi girma na gishiri fiye da Tekun Pacific kanta. Baya ga wannan teku, kogin Colorado da kogin Gilas suna wucewa ta nan, a matsayin tushen ruwa na farko. Ban ruwa ya samar da ƙasa mai albarka don noma a yankuna da yawa, misali Imperial Valleys ko Coachella a California. Akwai ma wuraren shakatawa don ciyar da lokacin sanyi a ciki Gidajen haya a Palm Springs, Tucson, Pheonix.

Daga cikin ciyayi na yau da kullun shine saguaro cactus, Popular saboda yana tsiro ne kawai a nan. Yana iya zama da gaske tsayi sosai kuma rassan da yawa suna girma daga gangar jikin don haka yayi kama da mutum. Jemage, kudan zuma har ma da tattabarai ne ke lalata furanninta.

Ya kamata a lura cewa shi ne hamada mafi zafi a cikin duk hamada a Arewacin Amurka, amma ruwan sama yana haifar da a babban bambancin ilmin halitta. Ruwan sama na rani yana ba da damar haɓakar wasu tsire-tsire, na hunturu, wasu. Akwai ma itatuwan bazara da furanni.

A ciki akwai abin tunawa na kasa na Sonora Desert National Monument wanda aka samo asali daga 2001, yana kare wani yanki nasa kuma yana jadada girman wannan fili.

Hamadar Mojave

Ya ketare Nevada, Arizona da California kuma yana karɓar inci biyu na ruwan sama a kowace shekara don haka abin da aka faɗa ke nan babban busasshiyar hamada. Kuma zafi sosai. Hakanan hamada ce babba kuma don haka tana da tsayin daka daban-daban na filin. Mafi girman maƙasudin shine Teloscope Peak kuma mafi ƙanƙanta Kwarin Mutuwa. Koyaushe magana game da tsayi.

Daya daga cikin fitattun wuraren wannan hamada shine Bishiyar Joshua, itace ta al'ada kuma ana samunsa a cikin iyakokinta. An dauke shi mai nuna nau'in nau'i kuma hakan yana ba da rai ga wasu nau'ikan shuka kusan dubu biyu. Alamar iri? Yana nufin wata halitta mai rai da za a iya amfani da ita don auna wasu yanayin muhalli. Har ila yau, akwai kewaye 200 endemic shuka iri kuma idan muka yi magana game da dabbobi akwai coyotes, foxes, maciji, zomaye ...

Wannan hamada tana da yashi, ciyayi marasa ciyayi, saman gishiri tare da borax, potassium da gishiri (wanda ake hakowa), azurfa, tungsten, zinari da ƙarfe. Hakanan cikin samanta akwai wuraren shakatawa na kasa guda biyu, Death Valley National Park da Joshue Tree National Park, wurin adanawa, Mojave National, da wurin shakatawa a kan Lake Mead.

Idan kuna son hanyoyi anan shine Hanyar Mojave, daya daga cikin tsoffin hanyoyin da suka kawo majagaba zuwa California. Hanya ce ta musamman da aka kiyaye kamar yadda waɗannan jaruman suka ketare ta, suna ratsa ta cikin shimfidar wurare waɗanda kusan ba su canza komai ba tun zamanin da. Za su zama kadan fiye da 220 kilomita kuma ana yin shi a cikin manyan motoci 4 × 4.

Hanya ce kadai, tare da wasu maɓuɓɓugan ruwa waɗanda, kafin farar fata ya yi amfani da su, Indiyawa sun riga sun san su. Bi da kammala Hanyar Mojave ba ƙaramin aiki ba ne domin a balaguron tafiya tsakanin kwana biyu zuwa uku, wanda ake yi a cikin ayarin motocin da motoci da dama. Yana farawa akan Kogin Colorado kuma daga baya, balaguron daji ba tare da Intanet ba, ba tare da sabis ba, ba tare da otal ba ...

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