San Miguel de Escalada

San Miguel de Escalada na ɗaya daga cikin manyan pre-romanesque abubuwan tarihi daga lardin León. Gidan ibada ne wanda aka tsarkake a 913 don saukar da sufaye daga Cordoba, amma a halin yanzu kawai cocin da wasu abubuwan dogaro.

Tana cikin karamar hukumar Hanyoyi, kimanin kilomita ashirin da bakwai daga babban birnin León kuma a cikin Hanyar Santiago. An gina gidan sufi a kan tsohuwar cocin Visigothic tsarkakewa, ga alama, ga San Miguel. Idan kana so ka sani game da wannan jauhari na pre-Romanesque, muna gayyatarka ka ci gaba da karatu.

Tarihin San Miguel de Escalada

A cikin shekara ta 912, wasu rukunan sufaye karkashin jagorancin Abbot Alfonso sun isa wannan yankin na León. Sun yanke shawarar zama a wurin, sun gina a cikin shekara guda kawai gidan sufi wanda, a cikin 913, bishop zai tsarkake shi Saint Genadius na Astorga.

Don ginin ta, sun yi amfani da kayan aiki daga tsohuwar aikin Visigothic wanda muke magana akai. Wannan har yanzu ana bayyane akan ɗayan bangonsa, inda zaku iya ganin rubutu daga asalin haikalin. A nata bangaren, gidan sufi ya rayu a zamaninsa a karni na XNUMX, a lokacin ne aka kara wasu sabbin abubuwan gini.

Tuni a cikin XIX, tare da kwace ta hanyar Mendizabal na dukiyar coci, an yi watsi da San Miguel de la Escalada. Koyaya, ta sami gyare-gyare da yawa kuma, tun farkon 1886, ya bayyana Tarihin Kasa.

Galleryaukar hoto

Portico na San Miguel de Escalada

Halaye na San Miguel de Escalada

Kamar yadda muka fada, wannan ginin yana ba da amsa ga halaye na pre-romanesque fasaha. Wato, ga irin abin da suke gabatarwa Santa Maria del Naranco o Saint Michael na Lillo a cikin Oviedo. A magana gabaɗaya, yana haɗo abubuwan Visigoth da sauran abubuwan Mozarabic.

Koyaya, masana na yanzu sun fi son kiran shi gyara kayan zane. Dalilin, kamar yadda watakila kuka hango, shi ne cewa Kiristocin da ke zaune a cikin yankin Castile da Musulmi suka yashe ne suka gina shi don sake cika su. Amma, kamar yadda waɗannan yankuna kan iyaka ke koran abokan hulɗa koyaushe, wannan salon yana da ƙarfi mozarabic kashi, ma'ana, daidai ne ga Kiristoci amma hakan ya fito ne daga yankin mallakar Al-Aldalus.

A gefe guda, kamar yadda muka ambata ma, rukunin San Miguel ya sami ƙarin kari a wasu lokuta bayan gininsa. Daga cikin wadanda aka kiyaye, da babban romanesque hasumiya daga karni na XNUMX wanda ya mamaye kudancin ɓangaren hadadden.

Coci

Amma, daga cikin sassan ginin da aka adana a yau, coci shine mafi mahimman abu. Shin basilica shuka kuma ya kasu kashi uku na ruwa wanda, bi da bi, an raba su da baka na gargajiya baka dawakai Musulmai. Hakanan, tsakanin ɗakuna da kan haikalin akwai sarari a tsaye wanda yake aiki kamar transept da kuma cewa za a ƙaddara wa malamai a cikin bukukuwa.

A nasa bangaren, taken yana da uku apses wanna sune semicircular a ciki, amma rectangular a waje. Bugu da kari, waɗannan suna rufe su galan ɗin valen kwatankwacin wadanda zaka iya gani a masallatan larabawa da yawa.

Tsakanin transept da kai akwai iconostasis wanda aka kafa ta ginshiƙai a cikin siffar gicciye wanda, a cikin litattafan Hispanic, ya ɓoye firist ɗin daga masu aminci yayin Tsarkakewa. Wannan al'ada ce ta al'ada wacce aka kiyaye a cikin litattafan yanki har zuwa lokacin da aka karɓi na Roman a karni na goma sha ɗaya. Iconostasis shine tsarin ginin da ya samar da wannan sirrin. A yadda aka saba, allo ne da aka yi wa ado da abubuwan addini waɗanda aka ajiye a gaban bagaden. An fara amfani da shi a cikin haikalin Byzantine, daga inda ya wuce zuwa Yamma.

Bakunan dawakai na haikalin

Bayanin kwatancen dawakan dawakan San Miguel de Escalada

Game da waje, haikalin ba shi da falo mai faɗi, wani abu gama gari a cikin Asturian pre-Romanesque. Theofar shiga ta gefe da yamma. Daidai, a gefen kudu na cocin akwai arcaded gallery tare da kofaton ƙarfe baka hakan yana kawata duka. Wannan mahimmin abu, daga baya kamar yadda aka gina shi a cikin karni na XNUMX, kuma shine ainihin haikalin Asturian kuma daga baya za'ayi amfani dashi cikin romanesque gine.

Game da hasken cocin, hakanan yana bin fasalin wasu temples na farkon Kiristanci. Sabili da haka, ana samun nasara tare da ƙananan windows a cikin bangon da ke gudana na manyan nave da apses. A ƙarshe, ana tallafawa rufin a matakai biyu kuma yana da gangare mai faɗi da faɗi.

Hasumiyar

Shi ne kayan gini na karshe da aka kara wa ginin San Miguel de Escalada, tun a karni na XNUMX. Yana da katangar katako mai kauri kuma asalinsa ya kasance hawa uku ne. Ana shiga ciki ta ƙofar tare da baka mai zagayawa wanda zai kai ka zuwa Majami'ar San Fructuoso, wanda aka fi sani da Pantheon na Abbots.

Amma yafi nuna haske akan tagar baka biyu. Kasancewar ta na da ban sha'awa saboda hasumiyar ta Romanesque ce. Saboda haka, ba a ƙara amfani da irin wannan baka ba. Idan anyi haka, to ayi koyi da wanda aka samu a yammacin haikalin.

Da kayan ado

A ƙarshe, adon San Miguel de Escalada shine mai arziki sosai don lokacinta. Ya ƙunshi manyan birane, friezes, latankuna da ƙofofi. Game da dalilansu, kayan lambu suna da yawa. Misali, gungu, ganye da dabino. Amma akwai wasu siffofi na geometric kamar su braiding ko meshes da dabbobi, kamar su tsuntsayen da ke tsinkayen bishiyar inabi.

Codex na San Miguel de Escalada

Kusan shekara ta 922, da mahaifin Victor, na gidan sufi na Leonese wanda ya damu da mu, ya ba da umarnin ƙirƙirar kundin tarihi wanda zai kwafa 'Sharhin littafin Ru'ya ta Yohanna' daga Beatus na Liebana. Sakamakon haka ne ake kira 'Mai Albarka na San Miguel de Escalada', an danganta shi ga mai haskakawa mai haske Mai hikima. Koyaya, wannan kundin, a bayyane yake, ba a yi shi a cikin gidan sufi na Leonese ba, amma na San Salvador de Tábara ne, wanda yake a cikin garin Zamora mai wannan sunan. A halin yanzu, ana adana 'Beato de San Miguel de Escalada' a cikin Morgan Laburare daga New York.

Bayan gidan ibada

Bayan gidan ibada na Leon

Yadda ake zuwa San Miguel de Escalada

Wannan abin tunawa yana nan, kamar yadda muka gaya muku, a cikin gundumar Leonese na Hanyoyi. Hanya guda daya da za'a isa ga abin tunawa shine ta hanya. Kuna da motocin bas daga babban birnin lardin, amma ba su cika yawa ba. Shawararmu ita ce ku shiga motar ka.

Don yin shi daga León, dole ne ka ɗauki N-601 wannan ya haɗa garin da Valladolid. A tsayin Villarente dole ne ku ɗauki BA-213 wanda zai dauke ka zuwa Gradefes. Amma, kafin isa babban birni na birni, dole ne ku ɗauki karkacewa zuwa hagu sanarwa gidan sufi.

A ƙarshe, San Miguel de Escalada Yana daya daga cikin manyan gine-ginen pre-Romanesque a duk cikin Castile. Dangane da mutanen zamanin Asturiyanta, kyanta ba zai bar ku da rashin kulawa ba. Ci gaba da ziyarci shi.

Shin kuna son yin littafin jagora?

Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

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  1.   Jonathan m

    Lokacin da aka gina San Miguel de Escalada, Castilla yanki ne a cikin masarautar León, don haka sufaye Andalusiya inda suka zauna suna cikin León. A yau, wannan ginin yana cikin yankin León, Castilla y León, kamar yadda sunansa ya nuna, ya ƙunshi yankuna biyu. Don haka gidan bautar bai kasance ba kuma ba Castilian bane.
    Baya ga rashin daidaito na tarihi da fasaha (duk da cewa ban nuna su ba), abin birgewa ne cewa ba a ambaci Beato de Escalada (dutse mai daraja), a yau a cikin ɗakin karatu na Morgan da gidan kayan gargajiya a New York.

  2.   Valdabasta m

    San Miguel de Escalada garina ne kuma yana cikin León! ba a cikin Castilla ba! Shin kuna da ni'imar gyarawa da rashin rubuta irin wannan maganar banza.