Kiev Caves Monastery

Kiev Shi ne babban birnin kasar Ukraine, amma kuma shi ne zuciyar kasar, wani tsohon birni, da ƙarni na tarihi da kuma al'adu arziki. Ga sanannen Kiev Caves Monastery, ko, mafi daidai, da Kyivan Monastery.

Yana da kyau cocin addinin Kirista na Orthodox wanda aka kafa a cikin rukunin kogon baya a karni na XNUMX. A yau har yanzu yana da inganci kuma shine, ba wai ɗaya daga cikin taskokin Kiev ba, har ma da babban abin jan hankali na yawon bude ido.

Kiev Caves Monastery

Sunan gaskiya shine Kyivan Cave Monastery kuma kamar yadda muka fada a baya na addinin Kiristanci ne. San Antonio de las Cuevas ne ya kafa ta a tsakiyar karni na XNUMX, kusa da ƙauyen Berestove. Babu shakka a wancan lokacin kogon ya keɓe, amma lokaci da ci gaban jama'a sun ƙaddara cewa zai kasance a cikin tsakiyar babban birnin Kiev na zamani.

Binciken archaeological ya ƙaddara cewa Sufaye na farko sun haƙa koguna da yawa sa'an nan suka ƙarasa ginin coci a kansu. Na farko "abbot" ko girma na gidan sufi shine Varlaam, a cikin 1057, Saint Theodosius na Caves ya gaje shi tsakanin shekaru 1062 da 1074. Ya gabatar da mai mulki karatu haifar da ƙirƙirar odar Karatu. Wannan doka ta samo asali ne a cikin gidan sufi na Stoudios da ke Konstantinoful, tun daga karni na XNUMX, amma Saint Theodore mai karatu ne ya kawo shi Kiev.

Shekaru da dama bayan haka 'yan gurguzu sun yi kokarin rusa wannan tsari na cocin Ukrainian kuma akwai ma wani shahidi da ya mutu a filayen Siberiya a shekarar 1951, karkashin mulkin Stalin. Sufaye masu karatu dole ne su shiga karkashin kasa kuma suka ci gaba da imani da katakwamba. Amma idan muka koma baya, a waɗancan shekarun na farkon sufi, sun kasance sarakuna da boyars na Kyivan wadanda suka dauki nauyin sufaye da kyaututtuka, kudi, filaye da garu. Wasu ma sun zama sufaye.

Gidan sufi an yi awon gaba da su sau da yawa. Kasancewar dayawa daga cikin sufayensa hamshakan attajirai ne, masu daraja ko ilimi, ya sanya shi kwadayin ganima. The cuman, ƙabilar makiyaya ta yammacin Turkiyya, an kai hari a 1096, mafi muni kuma wasu sarakuna da Mongol Batu Khan suka yi a 1240. Bayan kowane hari ya zo sake ginawa suka tashi sababbin majami'u an kuma tona wasu ramuka a karkashin kasa. kogwanni da catacombs sun girma.

Hare-haren, barna da gobara ba su yi komai ba sai fadada shi, don haka, Ya zuwa karni na XNUMX, gidan zuhudu na farko ya zama hadaddun manyan gidaje shida. Kowane karni ya kawo ƙarin bala'o'in gini amma duk da haka, bayan kowane ɗayansu, an sake yin gini da faɗaɗawa. Ko da ya zo yana da mahimman bugu da ɗakin karatu wanda cikin baƙin ciki ya shafe wata babbar wuta a 1718.

Duk da kishin da wannan al'amari ya zo da shi. zuwa karni na sha takwas gidan sufi ya kasance mai arziki sosaiTana da birane uku, garuruwa bakwai, ƙauyuka 200 da ƙananan garuruwa, injina 150, injin fulawa 150, gidajen abinci 200 kuma jerin suna ci gaba. Kamar yadda ya faru a wasu sassa na Turai, a wani lokaci jihar ta ware duk wani abu tare da kiyaye waɗannan kaddarorin, baya ga sauya wasu tambayoyi na nadin hukumomin zuhudu. Bayan haka kuma Russification na gidan ibada.

Kafin juyin juya halin Rasha na 1917 akwai kusan 1200 sufaye da novices da ita ce cibiyar duniyar Orthodox, jawo dubban alhazai. Abin sha'awa shine wasu kayan tarihi na sufaye masu canonized, amma har da kogon kansu, wasu asalin Neolithic, inda sufaye suka rayu kuma an binne su daga farkon. Labyrinth na tunnels, sel, catacombs da aka haƙa daga dutsen yashi da ƙurar yumbu ...

Kogon Nisa da Kogon Kusa suna da faɗin ƙafa biyar da tsayin mita biyu. Niches na binnewa suna da zurfin mita 05 da tsayin mita 2 kuma tsayi ɗaya, har yanzu suna da mummified ragowar sufaye da waliyyai. Har ila yau akwai da yawa karkashin kasa chapels da coci, kamar Cocin Varlaam ko Cocin San Teodosio.

Gidan zuhudu yana kan titin Levantameinto de Enero, tsakanin tsaunukan katako, kusa da kogin Dnieper. Yana da kadada 28 kuma an kewaye shi da bango. Akwai wurare guda biyu, babba da ƙananan ko na nesa da kusa kuma a cikin duka akwai gine-gine da yawa tsakanin majami'u, gidajen tarihi, gidajen ibada da kuma a fili, shahararrun koguna.

Abin da za a gani a cikin Kiev Monastery na Caves

Ikklisiya kaburbura, tunnels da gidajen tarihim. Mafi mahimmancin coci a cikin hadaddun shine Cathedral na Zato An gina shi a tsakanin 1073 da 1078. Soviets sun lalata ginin a 1941 kuma an sake gina ginin ne kawai a ƙarshen 80s. Akwai kuma All Saints Church, na Maɗaukakin Gicciye, na Haihuwar Budurwa, na Tashin Matattu, Church of Triniti Mai Tsarki...

Daga cikin gine-gine masu ban sha'awa shine Faviana Library, da Bell Tower na New Caves, da Farmacia ko Refectory. Akwai hasumiyai: da Hasumiyar Zana, da Hasumiyar Clock da Hasumiyar Onufrivska, misali. Daga cikin gidajen tarihi akwai Gidan kayan tarihi na Littattafai da Talla, da Miniatures Museum, da National Treasures Museum, da sauransu. Kar a manta da bangon da ke kewaye da gidan sufi gaba daya. A kyau.

Kamar yadda muka ce kuma akwai kaburbura da yawa kuma daga cikin mafi shahara akwai na Saint Kusksha, na Nestor masanin tarihin tarihi, kabarin Oleg, ɗan Vladimir II Monomakh, na 'yarsa Euphemia da na Paparoma Clement I.

A yau, abin takaici, an raba mafi tsofaffin ragowar zuwa waɗannan sassa biyu da muke kira a sama, lavra bajo da lavra alto. A kogwanni da kuma har yanzu aiki sufi ne a cikin ƙananan part yayin da babba part aiki a karkashin ikon sufi na Al'adu na Ukraine da kuma shi ne abin da. An san shi a yau a matsayin sararin Kiyaye Al'adu da Tarihi.

Hanya mai yiwuwa? Ana ba da shawarar masu zuwa ga mahajjata: idan sun shiga ta Ƙofar Kogo za su ga titi da ke ratsa lambun gidan zuhudu kuma an kewaye shi a kowane gefe da wani hoton da aka yi da gonakin inabi. Kuna iya ganin kogin kuma yana da kyakkyawan kati. A cikin rabin na biyu na karni na goma sha bakwai, hoton da aka rufe da kuma shimfidar wuri ya tashi daga Kusa da Kogo zuwa Kogo Mai Nisa kuma ya ci gaba zuwa tuddai na kogon yana kara kyau ga komai.

Ba kome ba idan rana ce ko ruwan sama, tare da kulawa yana da kyau a yi tafiya tare da gangaren dutse don sha'awar yanayi da gine-ginen wannan kyakkyawan wuri. Gidan hoton da ke haɗa ƙungiyoyin kogo biyu an sake dawo da shi a ƙarni na XNUMX kuma daidai yake da a lokacin. Sa'an nan kuma dole ka yi tafiya ta cikin lambun, tsaya a gaban giciye na tunawa da bikin cika shekaru dubu biyu na Kristi, daga inda ra'ayi ne panoramic na dukan kogo.

A ƙasan lambun akwai Kogon Antonio (Kogon Kusa), yayin da kogon Theodosius ke cikin tudun da ke gaban Babban Cocin. Kowane mutum, mahajjata da masu yawon bude ido, suna yin garken zuwa gidan sufi na Kiev na kogo da kogon Kusa da Nisa a kan tushe na gidan sufi. Tafiya za ta zama abin ban mamaki. Shin kun kuskura ku aiwatar?

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