The Altamira Caves, Sistine ɗakin sujada na kayan tarihi

Zanen Kogon Altamira

Gano kogon Altamira a ƙarshen karni na XNUMX ya nuna juyawa ga ilimin da ya kasance na zamani ga mutumin da ya gabata: daga ɗaukan sa a matsayin halittar daji, sai ya zama ana kallon shi a matsayin mai ƙwarewar iya tsara sararin samaniya da fasaha mai ban mamaki. Yana daya daga cikin mafi girma da kuma farkon bayyanar halittar mutum.

Kogin Altamira, wanda yake a Cantabria, an yarda dashi a matsayin wuri na farko a duniya inda aka gano fasahar kogo daga Upper Paleolithic. Gaba, zamu sami mafi kyawun ɗayan kyawawan abubuwan adana hotuna a Spain.

Tarihin ganowa

An gano kogon Altamira kwatsam, a shekarar 1868, wani kare da ke farauta tare da mai gidansa, mai suna Modesto Cubillas, a yankin. Da yake bin abin farauta, ya sami wata ƙaramar buɗe ƙofa wacce ta kai ga kogon kuma a kan hanyar dawowa, Cubillas ya sanar da maƙwabtansa labarin, waɗanda ba su ba shi mahimmancin gaske saboda sun yi imanin cewa wani kogo ne kawai.

Daga cikin mutanen da mafarautan suka ba da labarin har da Marcelino Sanz de Sautuola, wani hamshakin mai mallakar babbar kungiyar Cantabrian da ake ganin masani ne a yankin kuma yana da sha'awar ilimin burbushin halittu.

Har zuwa 1879 lokacin da Sautuola, tare da 'yarsa' yar shekara takwas María, suka gano wasu zane-zane a rufin lokacin da ya je kogon da niyyar tara wasu kasusuwa da ƙanƙara. Ya kasance mai matukar farinciki game da gano wadannan zane-zanen dabbobin har shekara mai zuwa ya buga karamin littafin kimiya akan Altamira.

Koyaya, a wancan lokacin ana ganin cewa zane-zanen ba su tsufa ba kuma wasu masu zane-zane ne suka yi su, suna saka abin da ake nema cikin shakka musamman a Faransa.

Mutuwar Sautuola kamar ta la'anci kogin Altamira ne, amma fa sannu a hankali an amince da ƙimar su ta hanyar binciken wasu kayan fasaha iri daban-daban a kogon da ke nahiyar.

Hoto | Dalilin

Halaye na kogon Altamira

An yi amfani da kogon a cikin lokuta daban-daban, galibi ga Magdalenian da Solutrean. Ta wannan hanyar, ana iya cewa yana ƙara kusan shekaru 22.000 na zama a cikin Babban Paleolithic. Salonsa ya bayyana a cikin makarantar da ake kira Franco-Cantabrian, wanda ke da halayyar ainihin siffofin dabbobi da kuma siffofin anthropomorphic, kodayake akwai zane-zane marasa ma'ana.

Tana da ɗan girma kaɗan, tunda tsayin metre 270 ne kawai. A ciki, an ayyana wurare da yawa, mafi mahimmanci shine zaure da ɗakin Polychrome. Mazaunanta sun shafe yawancin yini kusa da ƙofar tunda ita kaɗai ce rana ke haskakawa kuma a can suke yin rayuwar su ta yau da kullun yayin da suke cikin kogon, inda kawai za'a iya samunsa da hasken wucin gadi shine inda zane-zanen suka bayyana. Da yake ɓangaren cikin kogon duhu ne gabaɗaya, don iya zana shi an yi amannar cewa sun yi amfani da fitilun ɓamus ɗin da suka yi da kitsen da aka ciro daga ƙasusuwan dabbobi.

Mafi mahimmanci ɗakin duka ana kiran shi ɗakin Polychrome, tare da bison shine babban dabba. Maza magabata sun kasance suna sane da dabbobin da suka zana a bangon kogon Altamira, tunda sun rayu ta farauta kuma sun dau lokaci suna masu tunani. Bugu da kari, sun san fasahohin da za a sake kirkirar su da hakikanin gaskiya, kamar cin gajiyar wuraren da suka fito daga rufi da bango don yin zane a kansu da cimma nasarar da ta dace. Saboda wannan dalilin ya sami laƙabi na Sistine Chapel na fasahar dutsen.

Hoto | Jaridar Montañés

Kulawa da kogon Altamira

A farkon shekarun saba'in na karnin da ya gabata, sama da mutane 173.000 suka ziyarci kogon Altamira, wanda ya canza yanayin muhalli wanda ya kiyaye shi cikin haɗari. Sakamakon tabarbarewar zane-zanen, an yanke shawarar rufe kogon na 'yan shekaru har sai da aka sake buɗe su ga jama'a tare da wasu takunkumi.

Ma'aunin ya ci gaba har zuwa farkon karni na XNUMX, lokacin da aka gama Neocave, kwatankwacin kogon Altamira, wanda aka yi amfani da hanyoyin zane iri ɗaya da na d inhabitants a.

A halin yanzu, mutane biyar ne kawai ke iya shiga cikin kogon Altamira ta hanyar zane sau ɗaya a mako, na rabin sa'a kuma koyaushe suna tare da jagorori biyu da nufin kiyaye su gwargwadon iko.

Shin kuna son yin littafin jagora?

Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

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