Menene tsohuwar ƙasa a Turai

Bisa ga Ƙamus na Royal Spanish Academy wata ƙasa yanki ne da aka kafa a matsayin ƙasa mai cikakken iko. Samar da jihar ba ƙaramin aiki ba ne kuma shine ƙarshen dogayen hanyoyin tarihi inda aka zana iyakoki kuma aka sake tsara su sau da yawa. To kasashe nawa ne a duniya a yau?

Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta amince da kasashe 194 na hukuma a fadin nahiyoyi biyar. Kowa da tarihinsa, amma idan muka kalli wani abu kusa ... Mene ne mafi tsufa ƙasa a Turai? Kun sani?

Babbar kasa a Turai

Kodayake galibi ana tattaunawa game da shi, Portugal ita ce mafi tsufa a Turai. Kuma kamar yadda muka fada a sama, sakamakon dogon tsarin tarihi ne. A duk duniya, mutane sun ɗaga tutocin addini, launin fata ko yare don yin sarauta a tsakanin wasu, a Turai, a Amurka, a Asiya ...

A kowane hali al'ummomin sun haɓaka jin daɗin jama'a daga musayar al'adu. Daga baya rikice -rikicen siyasa za su haifar da jihohi na wucin gadi, manne da son ikon amma cikin sauƙin kwance damara lokacin da wannan ikon ya rasa ƙarfi. Bari muyi tunani game da Daular Usmaniyya, Tarayyar Soviet, Daular Austro-Hungary ...

Amma me ya faru da Portugal? An kafa harsashinsa a kusa da shekara ta 1139 kuma kodayake kwanan wata baya faɗi da yawa dole ne ku yi la’akari da zaman lafiyar iyakokinta. Idan wannan shine abin da za a yi la’akari da shi to, Portugal ita ce mafi tsufa a Turai.

Gaskiyar ita ce yayin da sauran nahiyoyin suka sha fama da yaƙe -yaƙe da tawaye waɗanda suka motsa iyakokinta na dindindin, sarkin ya canza, masarautar ta canza, jihohin zamani, dimokuraɗiyya, jamhuriya, mulkin kama -karya, Portugal tana da tarihi mafi tsit. Portugal tana da kusan ƙarni goma na rayuwa kuma wadancan iyakokin sun kasance tsayayye tun daga karshen karni na XNUMX.

Shin kuna mamakin cewa Portugal ce? Shin kuna tunanin, wataƙila, Girka? Bari mu tuna wace madaidaiciya muke ɗauka, kwanciyar hankalin iyakoki. Bayan faɗuwar Daular Roma, mutane da yawa sun mamaye yankin Fotigal, tsakanin su Larabawa, kuma lokacin da za a iya sake mamaye ta, Gundumar Portugal, an haɗa shi cikin Masarautar Castile.

Babu shakka an yi ƙoƙari da yawa don samun cin gashin kai, a daidai lokacin da suke son korar Larabawa, wanda a ƙarshe aka samu lokacin da Portugal ta rattaba hannu kan 'yancin kai a 1143, littafin da Paparoma Alexander III ya gane. A wancan lokacin, Count Alfonso Enríquez, ɗan Count Enrique de Borgoña, ƙwararren soja da dabarun siyasa, ya yi mulki. Daga baya za a kawo ƙarshen rikice -rikicen da Masarautar Castile, ta hanyar sanya hannu kan yarjejeniyar Yarjejeniyar Alcañices tsakanin Dionisio I na Portugal da Fernando IV na Castile.

Wannan yarjejeniya ya kuma gyara iyakokin tsakanin masarautar Porugal da ta León. Bayan yakin, Portugal ta sami damar mai da hankali kan ci gaban ta kuma wannan shine yadda ta shiga kiran "Zamanin Bincike". Jiragen ruwansa sun shiga cikin tekuna, sun bincika tekun Afirka, sun sadu da haɗin gwiwa tsakanin Tekun Atlantika da Tekun Indiya ta Cape of Good Hope, suka shiga Kudanci da Kudancin Amurka, suka yi wa Brazil mulkin mallaka, suka isa Gabas.

Ƙasashe a Sabuwar Duniya sun ba shi sabbin dukiya hannu da hannu da hakar ma'adinai, da zinariya da duwatsu masu daraja da suka sanya kotun Sarki John V ta zama mafi arziki a Turai. Daga baya ya sami rikice -rikicen siyasa, tattalin arziki da zamantakewa. A gaskiya, karni na XNUMX ba karni ne mai nutsuwa ba saboda yana da kowane irin tawaye har ma da sanarwar sojoji. Bugu da ƙari, tsakanin ƙarni na goma sha tara zuwa ashirin, dauloli sun fara rugujewa kuma na Portugal ba banda.

Portugal ta yi karo da Ingila sau da yawa, ba tare da sa'a ba, don haka a ƙarshe hakan ya yi tasiri, a tsakanin sauran abubuwa, ba shakka, akan ikon masarautar da a ƙarshe aka soke ta a watan Oktoba 1910. Sannan aka haifi jamhuriya, shiga kasar a cikin Yaƙin Duniya na Farko, kwace mulki da sojoji da was salazar, na kotun fascist.

Ƙarshen Yaƙin Duniya na Biyu kuma ya shafi Portugal. Babu wanda ya so ya bar abin da ya mallaka na ƙasashen waje amma sun kasance yanayin da ba za a iya daidaitawa ba. Sannan, Portugal ta shiga yaki a Angola, a Guinea Bissau, a Mozambique. Matsalolin da ke waje ba su sassauta matsalolin ciki ba don haka, a cikin shekarun da suka gabata Portugal ta sha fama da rikicin da ba a misaltuwa wanda ya haifar da abin da ake kira Juyin Halitta, a 1974.

Tsakanin sojoji da hadarin gurguzu, ya kasance A shekarun 70, kasar ta yanke hulda da kasashen da ta yi wa mulkin mallaka a Afirka, inda ta amince da 'yancin kai.. A ƙarshe, tsarin dimokuraɗiyya ya fara daidaitawa kuma a shekarar 1976 aka zabi shugaba na farko ta hanyar kada kuri'a na duniya.

Yanzu, idan muka yi la’akari da wani canji, tabbas akwai ƙasashe da suka girmi Portugal. Misali, Girka, tare da daidaiton al'adu na dubban shekaru. A bayyane yake, ƙarni sun haifar da canje -canje a tsarin siyasarta da kan iyakokinta kuma bai kamata mu kwatanta iyakokin yanzu da na tsohuwar Girka ba, amma yawancin al'adunsa na asali har yanzu suna bayyana a yau kuma sun kafa shi azaman daya daga cikin tsoffin al'ummomi ba kawai a Turai ba amma a duniya.

Portugal, Girka, dole ne mu kuma nada San Marino Ƙaramar ƙasa ce amma ƙasa a ƙarshe kuma ita ma tana ɗaya daga cikin tsofaffi a Turai da duk duniya. A bisa hukuma San Marino an ƙirƙira shi a cikin shekara ta 301 ta hannun wani masanin kirista, Marinus the Dalmatian, wanda ya bar tsibirin Arbe don tserewa manufofin ƙin Kiristanci na Sarkin Roma Diocletian. Ya zo nan, ya buya a Dutsen Titano, kuma ya kafa ƙaramin al'umma.

Babu shakka San Marino yana hannun maƙwabta maƙwabta, amma a 1631 a ƙarshe Vatican ta amince da 'yancinta. Shekaru daga baya, a cikin 1797, Faransa kuma ta amince da ita, kuma ta 1815 da sauran ƙasashe da yawa na Turai. 'Yancin kansa yana cikin hadari wani lokaci, misali a lokacin sake haɗewar Italiya, amma ya yi nasarar kare shi tare da sanya hannu kan yarjejeniyoyi da yawa.

Duk da cewa San Marino karamar jiha ce, ba za mu iya faɗi iri ɗaya ba don Francia. Ana iya samo asalin wannan al’umma ne daga karyewar Daular Roma Mai Tsarki a shekara ta 843 ko kuma samun sarautar Sarki Clovis a shekara ta 481. Bari mu ɗauki wata rana ko ɗaya, gaskiyar ita ce Faransa ta daɗe lokaci. looooong yanayi.

Hakanan zamu iya magana akan Armenia, wanda ya mallaki yankinsa na akalla shekaru 2600, na Bulgaria kuma shi ke nan a waje Turai Japan, Iran Masar da Habasha suna daga cikin tsoffin kasashen.

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