Gasar Warsaw

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Babban birnin Poland, Warsaw, a yau birni ne mai birgima wanda ke da kusan mazauna miliyan 2 inda ake yaba al'adun gargajiya da na zamani a kowane kusurwa na garin. Wuri mai ban mamaki wanda aka lalata shi gaba ɗaya yayin Yaƙin Duniya na II amma ya sami damar tashi daga tokarsa. Wuri da aka hukunta musamman a wancan lokacin shine Warsaw Ghetto, matsuguni mafi girma na yahudawa a duniya inda aka tilasta su tsakanin Oktoba zuwa Nuwamba 1940 ta Nazi.

Farkon Warsaw Ghetto

A cikin 1939 lokacin da mamayewar Poland ya faru, gwamnatin da Hans Frank ke jagoranta ta yanke shawarar ware jama'ar yahudawa da ke zaune a Warsaw da sauran mutanen Poland. Dalilin shi ne kawo irin matakan nan na kin jinin yahudawa wadanda suka kasance a Jamus a kasar, abin da sabon magajin garin Ludwig Fischer zai kula da shi daga baya.

Ta wannan hanyar, kusan an tura dangin Poland 90.000 da karfi an tura su zuwa wani tsohon janar yahudawa daga Tsakiyar Zamani lokacin da Poland ta kasance ɗan rago. Kodayake barin gidajensu abin haushi ne na gaske amma har yanzu suna da 'yanci don zagayawa cikin sauran garin amma A cikin Nuwamba 1940, sojojin SS ba zato ba tsammani sun kewaye ghetto Warsaw kuma suka fara kafa bango Tsayin mita 4 da mita 18 wanda ya ware yahudawa 300.000 waɗanda zasu tashi zuwa 500.000 a tsakiyar yakin.

Gwamnatin ghetto ta Warsaw ta fada ga abin da ake kira Majalisar Yahudawa ta Warsaw da Adam Czerniaków ke jagoranta, wanda ya yi ma'amala da kulawar ciki na ghetto da kuma tuntuɓar Jamusawa da lesan sanda a ƙasashen waje. Wannan gwamnatin ta hada da jami'an gwamnatin yahudawa yayin da sauran mazaunan da suka fada cikin talauci. A zahiri, don sarrafa na biyun, an ƙirƙiri rundunar 'yan sanda ta yahudawa wacce jami'anta masu sanye da kayan Yammani da makamai tare da ramuka na sarauta suka kafa gwamnatin zalunci ga takwarorinsu.

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Rayuwa a ghetto

Rayuwa a cikin Warsaw Ghetto ba ta kasance mai sauƙi ba saboda babu wanda zai iya barin sai waɗanda aka tilastawa ma'aikatan gwamnati kuma koyaushe suna ƙarƙashin rakiyar SS ko Poles of the Blue Police.

A farkon 1941, Warsaw Ghetto yana gab da yunwa sakamakon kwacewa da kwace daga SS. Za'a iya sauƙaƙa yanayin ta hanyar hikimar fahimtar tanadi. Koyaya, a lokacin bazara na wannan shekarar, Jamus ta mamaye Soviet Union kuma Warsaw Ghetto ya ƙara dagula lamarinta tunda a wannan lokacin an ba da dukkan albarkatu don kamfen ɗin soja a Rasha. Saboda wannan karancin da kuma yaduwar wata cuta ta typhus, dubunnan mutane sun mutu saboda yunwa kowace rana.

Holocaust ya fara

Idan yanayin ya riga ya zama abin nadama a cikin Warsaw Ghetto, to ya kara ta'azzara lokacin da Maganin Karshe a Turai ya fara a watan Yulin 1942. An gaya wa Majalisar Yahudawa cewa ya kamata a kori Warsaw Ghetto don sake matsar da jama'a a Gabashin Turai. Wadanda suka yi tsayin daka sun sha duka kuma an kama su kuma a karshe sun sanya jirgin kasa tare da motocin shanu sannan an tasa keyarsu zuwa sansanin mutuwa na Treblinka inda aka kashe su a dakunan gas.

A farkon rabin shekarar 1942, yawan mutanen Warsaw Ghetto ya ragu sosai saboda jiragen ƙasa suna tashi kowace rana zuwa sansanonin mutuwa. Girman Holocaust ya kasance ta yadda ba zai yiwu a ɓoye shi ga mazaunan Warsaw Ghetto a cikin 1943 ba, saboda haka mutane da yawa sun gwammace su mutu da yaƙi fiye da kisan wulakanci. Wannan shine yadda aka haifi Kwamitin Gudanar da yahudawa, wanda ya aiwatar da matakan adawa ga 'yan Nazi kamar abin da ake kira Tawayen Warsaw Ghetto, wanda yaƙin ya ɗauki tsawon wata ɗaya a cikin 1943. Wannan tawayen ya yi sanadiyyar mutuwar Yahudawa 70.000, daga cikin waɗanda suka faɗa cikin fada da fursunonin, wasu daga cikinsu za a harbe su nan da nan sauran kuma a tasa keyarsu zuwa cikin hayacin a sansanin mutuwa na Treblinka.

Tare da kayar da tashin Warsaw Ghetto, maƙwabtan ba su da kowa tare da duk gine-ginen da suka zama kufai. Tarayyar Soviet ta mamaye Warsaw a farkon 1945.

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Garkashin Warsaw a yau

Tarihin yahudawan Poland da ke Warsaw a yau ana ganinsa a kowane kusurwa na birni, kamar Majami'ar Nozyk. Kusa da wannan haikalin, tsakanin titin Marszalkowska da Filin Grzybowski Gine-ginen da aka lalata rabin masu lamba 7, 9, 12 da 14 suna nan, wadanda har yanzu suke da tagogin tagogi da baranda masu farfasawa, wanda ke tuna irin wannan barna.

Akwai titin da ya tsira daga halakar kuma duk da mamayar Rasha da ta Jamus ya kiyaye sunansa: Prozna Street. Anan ga gine-gine inda har yanzu ana iya ganin tasirin shrapnel. Barin wannan titin na Prozna sai muka nufi Gidan Tarihi na Tarihin yahudawan Poland, a tsakiyar abin da Warsaw Ghetto yake.

Gidan kayan tarihin yana da halin zamani da ma'amala kuma ta hanyar yin cikakken bayani game da tarihin al'umar yahudawa 'yan Poland a wani baje koli wanda ya nuna tarihin shekaru 1000 na yahudawa a wannan kasar. Asalinta, al'adunta, dalilan da yasa Poland ta maraba da yahudawa ta hanyar fifiko da kuma yadda wannan ƙiyayya da yahudawa ta ɓullo da ta ɓarke ​​a cikin 40s na karni na XNUMX har sai da ta kai ga Holocaust.

A gaban gidan kayan tarihin akwai wani abin tunawa da ke girmamawa ga yahudawan da suka jagoranci tawayen a Warsaw Ghetto a cikin 1943. A gefe ɗaya ana lura da yahudawa a jere kuma sun sunkuyar da kai ƙasa, a ɗaya bangaren kuma an nuna wurin da suke kallon gaba kai tsaye da ruhun faɗa.

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