ʻO ke kahawai ʻo Suez

Aia kekahi mau kahawai ʻimi hoʻopunipuni a nā kānaka i kūkulu ai i ka honua a kaulana i ka honua. ʻO kekahi o lākou ka Kanal ʻo Suez. I kēia lā ʻatikala e nānā ana mākou i ka lua, ka Kanal ʻApelika i hoʻohuli i ka mōʻaukala kalepa o ka ʻāina a me ka honua.

ʻO ke kahawai ʻo Suez hoʻohui i ke Kaiwaenahonua me ke Kaiʻula a ʻike pinepine ʻia ma ka palena ma waena o ʻAsia a me ʻApelika. ʻO ka moʻolelo e pili ana i ka moemoeā a kūkulu ʻia ʻaʻole ia me ka hoʻopaʻapaʻa ʻole a me ka hakakā politika, akā ua pau ka hana akamai a ke kanaka me ka kūleʻa.

ʻO ke kahawai ʻo Suez

ʻO kēia canal artifica, he auwai ma ka ʻilikai, kūkulu ʻia ia ma waenakonu o ke kenekulia XNUMX e wehe i kahi ala pololei ma waena o ka ʻAkelanika ʻAkau a me ke Kai ʻInikia ma o ke Kaiwaenahonua a me ke Kaiʻula, e hōʻalo nei i ka hele ʻana a puni ka Atalanika a me ka ʻaoʻao hema o ke Kai ʻInikia, a pēlā e hōʻemi ai i ka manawa huakaʻi e nā mile he mau mile.

ʻO ka pūnaewele Hoʻomaka ia ma Port Said a hoʻopau ma Port Tewfik ma ke kūlanakauhale ʻo Suez. Hele wāwae iki aʻe ma mua o 193 tausani mau kilomita a loaʻa iā ia nā kahawai i ka ʻākau a me ka hema. ʻO ke ʻōnaehana kumu kahi o hoʻokahi ala wai, me ka ʻole o nā puka pā, me ke kai a me nā kiko kikoʻī ma Ballah a ma Great Bittler Lake.

I ka kenekulia XNUMX mau ka mana o nā aupuni nui o ʻEulopa ma ʻApelika, no laila ʻo UK a me Palani nā ona, he mau makahiki lākou, a hiki ma hope o ke Kaua ʻElua, i ke kaʻina hana o ka decolonization, ka pelekikena o ʻAigupita i kēlā manawa, Ua hoʻoholo ʻo Nasser e lilo i aupuni nona. ʻIke nō, ʻaʻole hiki iā ia ke hana me ka hakakā ʻole, akā ua hana hope ʻia ia.

Mai ia manawa mai, a me ke kau inoa ʻana i kahi kuʻikahi, hoʻoholo ʻia e hoʻohana mau ʻia ke kahawai, i nā manawa o ka maluhia a me ke kaua, e kekahi moku o kēlā me kēia ʻano, me ka hoʻokaʻawale ʻole ʻia o ka hae. Inā ʻike ʻoe i kahi palapala ʻāina o ʻApelika, maopopo iā ʻoe i ka mea nui o ke kahawai no nā hakakā ma ia wahi.

I kekahi mau makahiki i hala aku nei, Ma 2014, ua hoʻomaka ʻo ʻAigupita i ka hana o ka hoʻonui ʻana i ka Ballah Pass i 35 mau kilomita e wikiwiki ai ke kaapuni a i ʻole pālua hoʻi i ka hiki o ke kahawai i ka helu o nā moku i hiki ke hala i kēlā me kēia lā. Ua loaʻa a ua hoʻokumu ʻia nā hana i hoʻokahi makahiki ma hope. He aha hou aʻe, I ka 2016, ua wehe ʻia kahi ʻaoʻao ʻaoʻao hou.

Akā ʻo ia ka manawa mua i kūkulu nā kānaka i kahi mea like? ʻAʻole. Me he mea lā i ka wā kahiko o ko ʻAigupita kahiko ka manaʻo e kōkua i ka huakaʻi mai ka muliwai Nile a i ke Kaiʻula. No laila, manaʻo ʻia ua kūkulu lākou i kahi auwai liʻiliʻi, malia paha i ka manawa o Ramses II a ma hope e Darius, ke aliʻi Persian.

Ua noʻonoʻo ka Ottomans iā ia, hoʻi i ka kenekulia XNUMX, makemake e hoʻohui i ke Kaiwaenahonua me ke Kaiʻula, me ka makemake e hoʻohui iā Constantinople me nā ala kalepa a me ka huakaʻi.

Eia naʻe, pipiʻi loa ia, no laila ʻaʻole i puka nui mai nā pepa. I ka manawa o ke kaua Farani ma ʻAigupita i Napolén Ua hoihoi ʻo ia i nā koena o kahi kahawai kahiko a laila auwana wale nā ​​mea paʻi kiʻi Palani a me nā archeologists a puni ka ʻāina. Ke noho aliʻi ʻana ua hōʻike i ka hoihoi hou aʻe i ke kūkulu ʻana i kahi auwai Akā ʻo ke kūkulu ʻana o nā ʻīpuka i ʻoi aku ka pipiʻi o nā hana a lōʻihi nō hoʻi ka manawa, no laila i ka hopena ua haʻalele ʻia ka manaʻo.

Oia, ua hele mai ka manaʻo a hele aku mai ka manaʻo o ka poʻe he nui i ka manawa a hiki i kona hoʻokō ʻia ʻana. I ka hopena, ua koʻikoʻi nā mea a hoʻoholo ʻia e kūkulu. Is i hoʻolako kālā ʻia e ka Suez Canal Company, kahi hui o kekahi mau hui i hoʻokumu ʻia ma Palisa. I ka hoʻomaka, 52% o nā ʻāpana i ka lima o Palani a 44% i ka lima o ʻAigupita, akā ma hope ua kūʻai aku kēia ʻāina iā lākou i United Kingdom.

ʻO ka pūnaewele ua kūkulu ʻia ma ka Suez Isthmus, kahi alahaka ʻāina ma waena o ʻApelika a me ʻAsia ma nā ʻano kālaihonua. ʻIke ʻia ma mua o ka nui o nā ʻāina ʻelua a ma waena o 66 a me 2.6 miliona mau makahiki i hala aku nei ua ulu ka hewa nui e hoʻokaʻawale ana iā lākou. ʻAʻole ia he isthmus like, he ʻekolu kaumaha kaumaha i piha i ka wai ʻo ia ka Lake Manzala'O lake timsah a me ka Nā Kai ʻawaʻawa.

Hoʻokomo ʻia ka isthmus i nā sediment kai, ke one a me nā ʻiliʻili i waiho ʻia i nā manawa ua nui a i hōʻea paha e ka Nile a i lawe ʻia mai paha e nā one lele o ka wao akua. Maanei i hoʻoholo ʻia ai ke kūkulu ʻia ʻana o ka auwai. nā hana i hana ʻia ma waena o 1859 a 1869. He ʻumi mau makahiki o ka ʻeli ʻana me nā limahana i hana pākī, ka hapa nui o lākou i pau i ka make.

ʻAʻole ia he papahana i hāpai i ka manaolana i ka hoʻomaka. Akā i ka lima me ka ʻohana Rothchild, nā panakō kaulana, nā mahele liʻiliʻi ma Palani i pau i ke kūʻai aku e like me nā pōpō wela. I kēia manawa, kānalua a kūhewa ʻo UK no ka hoʻohana ʻana o nā limahana kauā kuisa.

Ma ka hopena, ka Suez Canal i wehe ʻia i Nowemapa 1869 me kahi hanana ma Port Said i komo pū me nā ahi, nā ʻahaʻaina a me nā aristocrats. E like me ka mea e manaʻo ʻia I nā lā mua i loaʻa i kahi kahawai kekahi mau pilikia ʻenehana a me nā pilikia kālā ʻoiai ua piʻi iki nā kumukūʻai. Eia nō naʻe, hoʻomaka wale ke kalepa e ulu i ʻelua mau makahiki ma hope mai a laila i kēlā manawa hoʻomau ka maopopo ʻole.

Akā ma mua o nā pilikia a me nā manaʻo kuhihewa ka ʻoiaʻiʻo kēlā ʻo ke kahawai ʻo Suez ka mea nui i ka pilina ma waena o nā lāhui. I kēlā manawa he ala hoʻokahi ke kahawai ma kahi o 8 mau mika ka hohonu a 22 mau mika ākea ma lalo a ma waena o 61 a me 912 mau mika ākea ma luna. Kūkulu ʻia nā kahawai kaʻahele i kēlā me kēia ʻewalu a ʻumi mau mile paha e ʻae ai i ka holo ʻana o nā moku mai kēlā me kēia ʻaoʻao.

Ua liʻiliʻi ʻo ia ma mua koke no laila ma kahi o 1876 ua hoʻomaka lākou hana hou e hoʻonui a hohonu ai hoʻi. Ma nā makahiki 60 o ke kenekulia 55, he 10 mau mika ka laulā o ke kahawai ma lalo a 12 mau mika ma nā kapa a me kahi hohonu o XNUMX mika i ke au haʻahaʻa. Ua hoʻonui ʻia nā kahawai a ua kūkulu ʻia nā poʻe ʻē aʻe i loko o nā loko, me nā hale paʻa a me nā mea kila e pale aku ai i ka lū.

Ma hope ua paʻakikī nā hoʻolālā e ke kaua Arab-Israel 1967, nā lā kahi i ālai ʻia ai ke kahawai ʻoiai ka ʻaelike i kau inoa ʻia ma mua. ʻO ke kahawai ʻo Suez noho ʻole a hiki i ka makahiki 1975 a e like me kā mākou i ʻōlelo ai ma mua, i 2015 Ua hoʻopau ʻo ʻAigupita i nā koena hou e hoʻonui i kona hiki: 29 mau mile keu o ka lōʻihi ma mua o kona kumu 164.

E hoʻopau wau haʻalele iā ʻoe i kekahi ʻike:

  • I ka makahiki 1870, ua hala nā moku he 486, ma lalo o ʻelua o ka lā.
  • I ka makahiki 1966, hala ka awelika o 21.250 mau moku i hala, ma kahi o 58 i kēlā me kēia lā.
  • I ka makahiki 2018, 18.174 mau moku i hala.
  • ʻAʻole ke kahawai kumu i kahawai ʻelua ala no laila pono nā moku e kū a hele, hele, a kū. Lawe lākou ma kahi o 40 mau hola e hala ai, akā ma ka 1939 ua hoʻemi ʻia kēlā manawa i 13 mau hola. Ma ka hopena o nā 40s ua hoʻokō ʻia nā konohiki a i nā makahiki 70 aia ka manawa ma waena o 11 a me 16 mau hola,
  • Ua loli nui ke ʻano o ka ukana a keu hoʻi i ka XNUMX kenekulia aila a me ka crude ke aliʻi. ʻO ka lānahu, nā metala, ka lāʻau, nā hua a me nā cereal, ka sima, nā mea hoʻomomona i hoʻohui ʻia.
  • ʻOiai ua hala mau nā moku ohua mai ka makahiki 40, ua emi ka helu ma muli o ka hoʻokūkū mai nā mokulele.
  • I kēia lā hiki iā ʻoe ke huakaʻi huakaʻi mai Cairo a i ʻole Port Said, ma ka holoholo ʻana.
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