Masada, ulendo m'mbiri

Ndili mwana panali ma TV otchuka kwambiri omwe amatchedwa Masada, sewero lakale lokhala ndi nyenyezi zapanthawi ngati Peter O'Toole, Peter Strauss ndi Barbara Carrera. Ndipamene ndidayamba kumva dzina la Masada ndi nkhani ya izi linga m'chipululu cha Yudeya ku Israeli.

Masiku ano mabwinja, akuluakulu komanso odabwitsa, ndi omwe amapanga Malo osungira zachilengedwe a Masada y mwana Chikhalidwe Chadziko Lonse, kotero ngati tsiku lina mukapita kukachezera Israeli simungathe kuwasiya panjira yanu.

Masada

Mabwinja ali ndi nyumba zachifumu ndi linga zomangidwa paphiri m'chipululu cha Yudeya, pafupi ndi Nyanja Yakufa, mu Israeli wamakono. Makanema apawailesi yakanema omwe mwatchulapo akutiwuza za mphindi zomaliza pankhondo pakati pa Ayuda ndi Aroma, omwe amadziwika kuti mbiri yakale ngati Kupanduka Kwakukulu kwa Ayuda. Anthu achiyuda adathawira kuno ndipo Aroma adazungulira malowo ndipo adamuzinga mwankhanza mpaka akaidiwo adasankha kudzipha.

Chifukwa chake Masada ndichinthu chofananako ndi kukonda dziko lachiyuda komanso kutsimikizika kwake monga anthu. Chiyambire 1966 dera lonseli lakhala National Park, kuyambira 1983 lakhala gawo la Yuda Desert Nature Reserve ndipo kuyambira 2001 ndi World Heritage Site malinga ndi UNESCO.

Dera lomwe Masada imayimilira ndi gawo lamiyeso yaying'ono, yopanda kukokoloka, yopanda mawonekedwe koma yofanana kwambiri ndi piramidi yopanda pake. Chifukwa chake chiphalachi chimakhala pafupifupi mamita 645 m'litali ndi 315 m'lifupi, malo okwana mahekitala 9. Kumbali yakum'mawa kuli mapiri okwera mita 400 ndipo mbali inayo ali mozungulira mita zana. Chifukwa chake, kufikira pamwamba ndikovuta.

Ngakhale kuli kuti zotsalira za midzi yakale zidapezeka, malinga ndi wolemba mbiri Flavio Josefo nyumbayo idamangidwa ndi mfumu ya Ahasimoni a Alexander Janneo ndipo kupezeka kwa ndalama ndi stucco kuyambira nthawi imeneyo zitha kuwonetsa kuti lingalirolo silolakwika. Koma mbiriyakale yomwe imatisangalatsa ife ya Masada ili pambuyo pake ndipo imachitika panthaŵi ya kugonjetsedwa kwa Yudeya ndi Pompey.

Mfumu Herode, wotchuka, wokhala ndi abale ake pano pomwe amapita ku Roma kukapempha zowonjezera kuti alamulire derali. Nyumbayo kenako idalimbana ndi kuzunguliridwa koopsa ndi Aparthi, ndipo ndi mvula yozizwitsa yokha yomwe idawapulumutsa kuti asagonje, popeza adasowa madzi. Pakadali pano, ali ku Roma, Herode adapeza thandizo lomwe adafuna ndikubwerera Mfumu ya Yudeya pang'ono ndi pang'ono anagonjetsa dera lonselo, ndipo pamapeto pake anagwetsa Yerusalemu.

Koma anali nthawi zovuta: mothandizidwa ndi Mark Antony Cleopatra VII adakulitsa ufumu wake, motero Herode adalimbikitsa Masada poganiza kuti tsiku lina adzafunika malo osagonjetseka. Zaka makumi asanu ndi awiri atamwalira, a woyamba wachiyuda - nkhondo yachiroma popeza mavuto anali mu crescendo. Gulu la Ayuda opitilira muyeso adagwira ntchito yopanduka, ena adalowa nawo ndipo pamapeto pake gulu Copó Masada akupha gulu lankhondo lachi Roma atayikidwa pamenepo.

M'zaka zotsatira dera lonselo linali phiri lophulika ndipo Masada idadziwika ngati malo osaweruzika. Ndiye Aroma adachitapo kanthu pa nkhaniyi ndipo adaganiza zopha othawa kwawo achiyuda komweko wozungulira mzindawu ndimisasa yambiri yankhondo. Mtsogoleriyo adakonza zonse mwatsatanetsatane, kuyang'ana kulowera kudera lotsetsereka lakumadzulo. Atayesa kubowola makoma koma osachita bwino, adaganiza zomanga linga lomwe patatha milungu ingapo lidafika mita 100 kutalika.

Pambuyo pake miyezi isanu ndi iwiri yozungulira Njirayo idamalizidwa ndipo nsanja yayitali yazitali yazitsulo yotalika mita 30 idamangidwa pamwamba. Kuchokera apa Aroma adaponya ndipo nkhosa yamphongo yomwe idapereka kukhoma idagwira. Patapita kanthawi Aroma adazindikira kuti Ayuda adamanga wina wolimba kuseri kwa khoma, kotero adathetsa ziwopsezozo ndikuwotcha nyumbayo.

Ayuda mkati mwa Masada anali pamavuto ndipo adaganiza zodzipha: amunawo adapha banja lake ndikusankha khumi kuti aphedwe. Ndipo kotero mpaka padatsala munthu m'modzi yekha, yemwe pokhala yekha adayatsa nyumbayo. Pomwe Aroma adalowa, adapeza manda.

Koma ndi liti pamene Masada anapezeka ndi ofukula za m’mabwinja? Zinali kumayambiriro kwa Zaka za zana la XNUMX, mu 1838 makamaka. Kuyambira pamenepo malowa adakhala osangalatsa ndipo chilichonse chidafukulidwa ndikupanga mapu. Kafukufuku wamkulu wofukula m'mabwinja adachitika mchaka cha 60.

Ulendo wa Masada

Kodi ndikotheka kuwona chiyani ku Masada? El kumadzulo Ikupezeka kuchokera ku Arad, kudzera pa njira 3199. Apa mudzawona kumanganso makina achiroma kuchokera pamalowa mpaka Masada, the njira yachiroma amene kukwera kumaphatikizapo kukwera kwa mphindi 15 mpaka 20, the zitsime zakale zakumpoto anakumba kuchokera kuphiri ndipo, pamtengo wosiyana, mutha kugona tenti. palinso fayilo ya kuwunikira komanso kuwonetsa usiku mu bwalo lamasewera.

Pamapiri pali mapiri a mabwinja a North Palace, zotsalira za nyumba yachifumu ya Herode yamitengo itatu yokhala ndi chipinda chojambulapo ndi zojambulajambula zomwe zamangidwanso, mabwinja a sunagoge yekhayo wotsala kuyambira nthawi ya Kachisi Wachiwiri, chipinda chomwe mayina a anthu onse ophedwa adapezeka, gulu lalikulu la Ayuda omwe adatsekera ku Masada panthawi yopanduka, a tchalitchi cha byzantine yomangidwa ndi amonke omwe amadzipangira okha omwe ali ndi pansi pake, Nyumba yachifumu yakumadzulo, zokula komanso zochokera m'nthawi ya Herode, malo osambira achiroma, zipinda za wamkulu wokhala ndi zojambulajambula ndi chitsime chakumwera, malo akulu pansi pa phiri.

Kufikira kuchokera ku Nyanja Yakufa, njira 90, munthu amalowa kudzera pakhomo lolowera kum'mawa komwe kuli shopu ya mphatso, malo othandizira oyamba, a malo odyera ndi cafe.

Komanso nayi Masada Yigal Yadin Museum, lotsegulidwa mu 2007, lomwe limafotokoza mwatsatanetsatane zomwe zidachitika mozungulira linga, ndikupereka zabwino maziko kudzacheza, a chingwe zomwe zimakutengerani kukhomo la Njoka, yovuta kwambiri, yomwe tsopano ikhoza kuphimbidwa ndi phazi, kuphatikiza ola limodzi ndi theka kutsika.

Ulendo wake ndiwodabwitsa kwambiri. Mutha ku buku lolowera ku Masada National Park pa intaneti, kudzera pa tsamba lovomerezeka, posankha tsiku.

Kodi mukufuna kusungitsa wowongolera?

Zomwe zili m'nkhaniyi zikutsatira mfundo zathu za malamulo okonzekera. Kuti mufotokoze cholakwika dinani Apa.

Khalani oyamba kuyankha

Siyani ndemanga yanu

Anu email sati lofalitsidwa. Amafuna minda amalembedwa ndi *

*

*