Zvido zveChina

China Iko nhasi iri imwe yenyika dzinonakidza kwazvo pasirese. Kwete kuti zvaive zvisati zvaitika, asi kwenguva yakareba isu taiziva zvishoma nezve nyika hombe iyi yaiyedza kusimudzira. Nhasi, mamiriro acho akasiyana uye pasi rese rinotambura kutengeserana neChina apo vagari vayo vanozadza nzvimbo dzese dzevashanyi veOld Europe neAmerica.

China inyika pachayo, asi zvakadii zvatinoziva nezvenyika huru iyi ine vanhu vakawanda muAsia? Nhasi, kuda kuziva kweChina.

China

Kune vazhinji, China ndiyo nyika inonakidza kwazvo pasirese. Ndiyo nyika yechitatu pakukura panyika uye iyo ine nhamba huru yevagari. Zvakare, kupfuura kumusoro uye pasi munhoroondo yayo yezvematongerwo enyika Iyo ndeimwe yenguva refu-yakamira ichiri inoshanda budiriro yezvose zvakave nepasi redu.

Kubva pakuva nyika inodzokera kumashure uye yezvekurima, yakasungirirwa kumatunhu ehukasha, yave imwe yenyika dziri kukurumidza kukura uye dzichiri kusimukira hupfumi mumakumi emakore apfuura. Izvo hazvina kusununguka uye zviuru zvemakore zvemadzimambo, mandarin nemamonki vakavigwa mushure meimwe yehondo dzakaomarara dzevagari dzevanhu dzinogona kutambura.

Nhasi, zita rayo ndere People's Republic of China uye ine rukudzo rwekuve chikamu cheboka rakasarudzwa: ndeimwe yeiyo Zvizvarwa Zvekare Zvekare wepasi pamwe nevaBhabhironi, maMaya nemaEjipitori. Nhoroondo inotiudza kuti ndima yeChinese yakabatana neyekutanga mambo, Qin, ane guva rakawanikwa uye rakafukunurwa kwemakumi emakore. Gare gare kwaizouya mamwe madzimambo anozivikanwa se Han, Tang, Yuan, Ming uye pakupedzisira, wekupedzisira, iyo Qing imba.

Mushure menguva yakareba iyi yemadzimambo paive, pakutanga kwezana ramakumi maviri, hondo huru yevagari vemo, kusvikira mu1949 iyo People's Republic of China yakavambwa komunisiti uye kubva paruoko rwaMao Zedong. Gare gare, shanduko dzakatanga mushure mekufa kwake na Denx Xiaoping vakaisa hwaro hweichi hafu-chikomunisiti, hafu-capitalist China yatinoziva tese.

Zvido zveChina

China ine Makiromita zviuru mazana mana nemazana mana uye hombe. A) Hongu, nzvimbo dzayo dzakasiyana nekuti kune makomo, mapani, magwenga, nzvimbo dzine huswa, nezvikomo. China inogara kunzvimbo yepamusoro papasi: iyo Gomo Everest ine 8.848 metres yakakwira, asi panguva imwecheteyo ine yechitatu kushushikana kwepasi pasi, iyo Turpan Depression ine isingasviki 154 metres.

Nezve miganhu China ndiyo nyika ine miganhu yenyika dzakawanda pasi roseIine ivo nenyika gumi nemana, Mongolia, Tajikstan, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Nepal, India, Myanmar, Bhutan, Vietnam, Thailand neNorth Korea. Zviripachena, kuonana kwega kwega kwakave nemafungiro ayo.

Iine saizi yakadaro mukuwedzera kune nzvimbo zvakare ine dzakasiyana siyana mamiriro ekunze. Nepo kuri kutonhora kuchamhembe kupfuura kumaodzanyemba, kumadokero kunooma kupfuura kumabvazuva. Kumusoro kuchamhembe tembiricha inogona kuva -40 butC asi kumaodzanyemba, muzhizha, iyo thermometer inogona kukwira kusvika ku40ºC yegehena. Zvimwe chetezvo nemvura, kumaodzanyemba kwakadziva kumabvazuva inonaya yakawanda, pamwe kusvika kumamita matatu, nepo mumarenje chete mamilimita mashoma mugore rese.

Pandaive mudiki, China yaive nyika yakavharwa, nezviuru zvevanhu vakatasva mabhasikoro vakapfeka mbatya dzebhuruu. Zvishoma nezvishoma, mumakore makumi matatu apfuura, kadhi reposvo rakachinja. Nhasi uno ndeimwe yehupfumi huri kukura pasi rese, uchikura panosvika gumi muzana pagore. Inozivikanwa seye «fekitori yenyika"uye ndiye anotungamira mukugadzira mbatya, matoyi, fetiraiza, kongiri nesimbi wepasi rose.

Zviripachena, uku kukura kwakabatana nevakawanda kusvibiswa kwezvakatipoteredza, uye muchidimbu yakagoneswa nekushaikwa kwemasangano evashandi. Mubhadharo wakaderera uye mashoma kodzero dzevashandi zvinoita senge yakaringana equation yekusimudzira. Kunyangwe pamutengo uyo mashoma nyika dzakasimukira nhasi dzinogona kugamuchira.

Uku kusimudzira kwehupfumi kwakaunza shanduko huru dzenzanga. Mukutaura, a kukura kwemaguta sezvo zvakaverengerwa izvo Mamiriyoni mazana matatu evanhu vakatama kubva kumaruwa vachienda kuguta mumakumi matatu emakore apfuura. Saka, iripo megacities uye sezvo chimiro chichienderera mberi, hurumende ingangosangana nemamwe matambudziko (dzidzo, hutano, kugara mumaguta, vashandi).

Mhuri dzakaparadzana, vabereki vanoenda kumaguta kundoshanda uye havagone kuunza vana vavo, avo vakasara vari mukuchengetwa nasekuru nasekuru. Kana ivo vanovatora asi ipapo ivo havagone kuanyoresa mumakero matsva uye vanoshaya chirongwa chekurapa ... icho chinhu chakadai. Zvese izvi zvinoreva matambudziko makuru kuhurumende yeChinese, hapana mubvunzo.

Uye zvakare, ivo maChinese vanhu, kunyangwe kumeso ekunze zvingaratidzika kunge zvakafanana, hazvina kufanana. China ine madzinza makumi mashanu nematanhatu, uye imwe neimwe ine tsika dzayo dzechivanhu, dzimwe nguva mutauro wayo uye dzimwe nguva maitiro ayo ekunyora. Ichokwadi icho ruzhinji rwevanhu ndiHan, vangodarika 91% yehuwandu hwevanhu, asi vaManchu, vaHui kana veMiao vane vanhu vazhinji.

Aya marudzi emadzinza anogara mune dzimwe nzvimbo dzenyika, saka marongero akasarudzika anofanirwa kugadziridzwa kuti aagadzirise. Semuenzaniso, muUygur mune mapoka echiMuslim uye mumakore achangopfuura yanga iri nzvimbo inonetsa kwazvo kuhurumende yepakati.

Nyika yakakura uye dzakasiyana kudaro yakabatana sei? Chikamu kuburikidza nesisitimu yekudzidzisa, senguva dzose. Kunyangwe China iine mitauro yakawanda, iko iko iko iko iko kutanga kweiyo chete mifananidzo yemifananidzo yekunyora yasara pasi, mutauro wepamutemo chiMandarin. Mandarin inodzidziswa muzvikoro zvese uye zvishoma nezvishoma rave kudzinga mimwe mitauro inozivikanwa, senge chiCantonese.

ChiCanton chinotaurwa muHong Kong, Macao, Guangxi kana Guandong, semuenzaniso, asi munzvimbo dzeShaghai kana Zhejiang mutauro weWu unotaurwa, uyo wakasiyana zvakanyanya neMandarin ... Zvisinei, chiChinese chingave mutauro unonyanya kutaurwa mu nyika muhuwandu hwevagari asi pasina kupokana Icho chimwe cheakaomesesa kudzidza kubva pabheti.

Nevanhu vazhinji uye mitauro yakawanda uye tsika dzakawanda, kunyangwe patinofunga kuti maChinese anoti chitendero chimwe chete, hazvina kudaro. Muchokwadi, chinamato inyaya yekuti pasi pechikominisiti yakatambudzwa zvakanyanya. Asi kana ipapo kana nhasi hakuna kana chitendero chimwe uye maChinese anozviti haatendi kuvapo kwaMwari kusvika muchiShinto, kuburikidza neConfucius, Buddhism, Taoism, Islam kana kunyange chiKristu.

Kwenguva yakati ikozvino, China yakaisa mari yakawanda mukuvandudza nzira yayo yekufambisa yemukati. Nyika inoshuvira kuve simba inofanirwa kuve yakabatana zvakanaka. Saka, uchitevera tsoka dzeJapan, Zvitima zveChinese zvinopfuura nharaunda yese. Uye ichi chekufambisa ndicho chinotendera vashanyi nhasi kuti vazivewo mashura ayo. Uye ndizvozvo, China ine hupfumi hukuru hwevashanyi.

Ini ndinotaura nezve Great Wall, iyo Terracotta Warriors, yakanaka Yakarambidzwa Guta, Guilin, Yangtze Rwizi uye Yero Makomo, iyo Sichuan pandas, mahombekombe eSanya, zvivakwa zvevanhu zvakawandisa zve Hong Kong, runako rweShanghai ... Uye iyo gastronomy!

Asi isu takatanga ichi chinyorwa kutaura nezvacho kuda kuziva kweChina saka hatisi kuzoenda tisina kusiya aya data: kites dzakagadzirwa muChina, makore anodarika zviuru zvitatu apfuura, nesiriki nemishenjere; zvakare vakagadzira bhora zviuru zviviri zvemakore zvakapfuura muHan Dynasty nguva yekufadza dare ramambo.

Pfuti yakaberekerwa muChina, zvakafanana neiyo fireworks, China inogadzira zvikamu makumi masere nezvishanu kubva muzana zvepasi rose. Mimwe misika muBeijing inotengesa zvekudya zvisinganzwisisike, semuenzaniso zvinyavada zvakanamirwa mumazino, zvinorarama, uye zvakakangwa mumafuta, pakati pezvimwe zvipembenene.

Uyewo, iyo dhaka yaishandiswa paGreat Wall yaigadzirwa nemupunga tsvimboKana iwe ukaisa pamwechete nzira dzese dzezvitima muChina, unogona kuenda kutenderera pasirese kaviri, zvidimbu zvakagadzirwa makore zviuru zvishanu apfuura uye zvaisashandiswa pakudya asi pakubika, kunyangwe nyika iri hombe ine nguva imwe chete yepamutemo (United States ine ina), hafu yenguruve dzese mupasi dzinogara kuChina (uye vanozvidya) ...

Uye saka tinogona kuenderera mberi nerunyorwa rwedu rwekunaka uye kuda kuziva kweChina asi ini ndinofunga zviri nani kuenda kunoona zvese mumunhu.

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