Kwamunoenda: United Arab Emirates

Kubva pane imwe nguva kusvika pachikamu ichi mu Middle East Simba rakabuda iro hupfumi hwaro hukuru hunobva kune yedu yegoridhe goridhe, izvo zvinoita kuti nyika itenderere kwenguva iyo: mafuta. Ini ndinotaura nezvazvo Mubatanidzwa wenyika dzeArab Emirates.

Mwanakomana vanomwe emirates avo vanoumba nyika ino inotonga uye nhasi tiri kuzorangarira zvishoma nyaya yake, kubva mugwenga kuenda kupfuma, uye mikana yevashanyi kuti vanotipa nhasi. Rwendo kuenda kuArabia peninsula, yaimbova nyika yemadunduru nemadzinza, nhasi nyika yevavaki uye mari.

United Arab Emirates

Kune emirates manomwe anoumba nyika ino: Dubai, Sarja, Umm al-Qaywayn, Fujairah, Ajman, Abu Dhabi uye Ras al-Khaimah. Sezvakaita Africa, masimba eEuropean ane zvakawanda zvekuita pamwe nekuumbwa kwenzvimbo dzedunhu. VaPutukezi vaongorori vakasvika pano muzana ramakore rechiXNUMX, vachitsvaga nekuvhura nzira kuAsia. Gare gare, muzana ramakore rechiXNUMX nerechiXNUMX, vaive maBritish akaita kuti Persian Gulf ive nzvimbo yakakosha panzira dzadzo dzekutengeserana.

Kune rimwe divi maEuropean, vachishuwira kuvhura kutengeserana, kune rimwe divi madzinza eArabhu anobata neakasiyana mafambiro nekuti kuwedzera kune veEuropean vaive munzvimbo yeOttoman Humambo nePersia Humambo uye nei kwete, vapambi. Isu tatozviziva izvozvo maBritish Vakaita mushe mushe pakutonga nyika, saka muzana ramakore rechiXNUMX vakagadzira a kudzivirira mundima yazvino yeva emirates.

Nekusayina zvibvumirano nemadzishe emuno, iyo General Chibvumirano cheMaritime muna 1820 iyo yaitaura kuti maArabu aizotora masimba evapambi. Makore makumi matatu gare gare iyo Yekusingaperi Maritime Truce izvo zvakatendera ngarava dzeBritain kutenderera mumahombekombe. Ipapo maBritish akabva pachiuno kusvika kugokora uye akawana muna 1892 iyo Chibvumirano Chete umo maArabu aisakwanisa kudyidzana nemamwe masimba uye United Kingdom yakavapa vachidzosera dziviriro yenzvimbo nekutengeserana.

Tiri kutaura nezvemhuri dzechiArabhu idzo panguva iyoyo dzainge dzisati dzambonzwa nezvemugodhi wegoridhe wavakatama. Saka ivo vakangofura, kuredza uye kuunganidza maparera. Paingova mushure meHondo Yenyika II apo iyo kutanga oiri uye gasi minda. Iyo boom yaive ichangotanga. Hondo yakapera uye Humambo hweBritain hwakaiswa kure saka nyika dzakatanga kutaurirana kuzvimiririra.

IUK yakasiya muna 1968 uye emirates vakaungana kuti vaone mafambiro avaiita. Dubai ne Abu Dhabi vakasangana ndokukoka vadziviriri veBahrain neQatar. Kwakazotevera kusawirirana pamusoro pekuti mhuri yeArabhu yaizotungamira kwakakonzera kuti vaparadzane, asi muna 1971 United Arab Emirates yakazvarwa, mubatanidzwa mutsva wemitezo mitanhatu. Ras al Khaima akange asipo panguva ino nekuti yaive nemhirizhonga yenharaunda neEmirate yeSarja, asi yakabatana gore rakatevera.

Aive Sheikh weAud Dhabi, Zared bin Sultan al Nahayan, akabata chigaro chemutungamiri wenyika kubva muna1971 kusvika paakafa muna 2004. Iye nehurongwa hwake vane chikwereti chemazuva ano mamiriro ehurumende pamwe nekuenzana kwesimba pakati pehama nomwe dzehumambo, avo hazvisi nyore. Yakabatana nema petrodollars, iyo United Arab Emirates yakapinda kukurumidza kwazvo kwazvino maitiro mu '90s uye nokudaro vafudzi, vapambi, uye vabati vepaarl vakave vakapfuma uye vane mukurumbira vatambi vezvematongerwo enyika.

United Arab Emirates nhasi

Sezvo neEuropean Union havasi vese emirates akafanana. Pane misiyano yezvehupfumi nekuti minda yemafuta haina kugoverwa zvakaenzana. Semuenzaniso, Abu Dhabi anotarisa angangoita 90% uye Dubai 5% yavo. Zvakare, aya matunhu ane ndege dzawo saka vane nzira dzakakosha dzekutengesa. Ivo vaviri vanomiririra 83% yeGDP, saka vashanu vashoma emirates vanovimba navo kuburikidza nemubatanidzwa mutero.

Asi zvaive nyore kuunza vanomwe emirates pamwechete pasi peimwe nyika? Kwete zvakanyanya. Bumbiro rakasainwa muna 1971 uye rakaitwa kusvika 1996, kunyangwe hazvo yaive isiri iyo chinangwa pakutanga. Apa zvakatemwa izvo guta guru i Abu Dhabi uye nekuwedzera ndiye emir yake anotungamira nyika. Gare gare, bumbiro rinotaura nezve kubatanidzwa kwenzvimbo dzinoverengeka dzakakosha mudunhu: mutero, mari, dzidzo, hutano ... Pamusoro pehurongwa hwekutonga pamwe nemauto.

Nhasi, chete Ras al Khaima neDubai vane matare avo uye vakagadzwa mauto ehurumende izvo zviri pakati pevane simba munzvimbo iyi. Zvese zvinodzorwa neFederal Supreme Council iyo inosangana kana pagore. Ese emirki anoenda kukanzuru ino uye makurukota anogadzwa kana avo vanogadzwa, zvinzvimbo zvinogoverwa, mitemo nebhajeti zvinokurukurwa. Mutungamiri anogadza mukuru wake, asi achigara achifunga nezvese emirates.

Kune sarudzo here muUnited Emirates? Vashoma Hurumende ine rairo yezvemitemo yeFederal National Council, iyo inoumbwa nenhengo makumi mana, kubva kumanomwe emirates, avo vakasarudzika chikamu musarudzo. Chete vanhu vanodarika zviuru mazana matatu vanogona kuvhota uye ivo vanosarudzwa neNational Electoral Committee inotarisa bonde, zera, rovedzo nenzvimbo yekugara.

Nekudaro, semuenzaniso, musarudzo dza2006, yekutanga, chete zviuru zvitanhatu zvevakadzi nevarume vakapinda. Nhasi uno nhamba yakakura uye muna6 vanga vari zviuru zana nemazana matatu ezviuru muna 2011.  Vakadzi vacho? Eya, vashoma kwazvo vanovhota uye musarudzo dzegore rapfuura paive nevanosvika zana nemakumi masere vakasarudzwa mune chimwe chinzvimbo, kunyangwe chete vanomwe chete ndivo vakakwanisa kuzviita. Sezvinei, kune vakadzi vanomwe paFederal National Council.

Chokwadi ndechokuti sharia, Mutemo wechiIslam, chii kutonga uye mamiriro ehupenyu hwemagariro nezvematongerwo enyika. Kunyangwe emirate yega yega iine degree rayo rekuzvimirira, hapana chinogona kupokana nehurumende yemubatanidzwa, inotongwa neIslam. Kune rusununguko rwechitendero, asi iyo chete inogona kuzviratidza pachena iIslam.

Chero ani akaona rugwaro nezve United Arab Emirates kana imwe yenyika dzayo anoziva kuti kune zvinhu zviviri chaizvo: zvevapfumi uye zvevarombo. Iyo yekupedzisira inopfuura chero chinhu vashandi vekune dzimwe nyika vakazvipira kumhizha yekuvaka. MaIndia, maPakistani, vanhu veBangladeshi vanoona hupfumi hwevamwe pachinhambwe chipfupi. Izvi zvinonyanya kuitika ku Abu Dani, Sarja kana Dubai, nzvimbo huru dzemadhorobha dzine huwandu hukuru hwevagari.

ari emiratis vanomiririra 11% yevagari vemo, miriyoni imwe chete yevanhu. Inofungidzirwa kuti 34% yavo vari pasi pemakore makumi maviri nemashanu uye vanonakidzwa nerubatsiro rukuru rwehurumende. Zvino kune vamwe vashandi vekunze, vane mabasa ane hunyanzvi, vanowana mari yakanaka. Kunyanya mukati mekambani yesimba.

Pakupedzisira, Chii chiri hukama hweEmirates nepasi rose? Inofanira kutaurwa kuti ndiyo nyika yechitatu yeArabhu kuva nayo hukama hwehukama neIsrael, uye hachisi chidiki. Kubva pane izvi ane chimwe chinzvimbo pamakakatanwa ePalestine uye inopikisana neIran. Muchokwadi, ane gakava neIran pamusoro pezvimwe zvitsuwa izvo iyo UAE inozviti iri muStrait yeOmuz uye inoipomerawo kusimudzira kupokana kwemukati nekushatisa vashoma veShiite.

Mwanakomana Dubai ne Abu Dhabi vakatora mutemo wezvekunze wenyika, mubatanidzwa wezvehupfumi, wezvemari uye wezvematongerwo enyika. Ngatisakanganwe kuti iri nhoroondo yehukama hweUnited States, kubva parusununguko, uye kuti pano pane mauto eAmerica akaendeswa. Matambudziko ayo neIran akaunzawo UAE padyo neSaudi Arabia, nyika inoda kutevera mumakwara ekubudirira kwehupfumi hwemuvakidzani wayo.

United Arab Emirates uye kushanya

Mumakore achangopfuura nyika yakatakura inki pane zvekushanya, kuyedza kutora mukana wayo mamiriro ekunze anodziya, zviwi zvacho zvekunyepedzera uye kunaka kwemaguta ayoakabuda murenje. Pasina mubvunzo vanhu vanotanga vatanga kuenda Dubai, nzvimbo iyo zvinoita sekunge mari yekushanyirwa yatodarika iya yemafuta.

Pano vashanyi vanogona kuwana zvishoma zvehupenyu mugwenga, ne mafambiro mu4 × 4 jeeps, husiku hweArabia pakati pematope uye kukwira makamerao, kana kuenda kunotenga kana kubuda mabhawa muhusiku husiku hunotyisa.

Nhasi, iwo maEmirates eRas al Khaima uye Umm al Quwain ayo anoda kusimudzira hupfumi hwavo akabatana pamwe nekushanya. Zvichakadaro, Fujairah inotsvaga kuita chiteshi chayo nzvimbo yekutengesera mugungwa, Sarja ndiro guta guru retsika nedzidzo, uye Ajman nzvimbo yekutumira neyemaindasitiri.

Chasara kuona ndechekuti kana mafuta achinge apera, sezvazvaimboita, nyika idzi dzichararama.

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