Imizekelo eyi-15 yoyilo lweRomanesque eSpain

ICardona

La Uyilo lweRomanesque eSpain Yenye yezona zinto zityebileyo nezahlukeneyo ehlabathini. Njengoko uyazi, yayiyeyona ndlela yokuqala yobugcisa eyavela kwi Amaxesha aphakathi YaseYurophu kwaye yalawula isakhiwo de kwafika i IsiGothic.

Nangona kunjalo, ukuqala kwayo akucaci ngokupheleleyo. Ngokombono weengcali, kukho iRomanesque yokuqala okanye Lombard eyayiza kuqala malunga nenkulungwane ye-9 kunye kade Romanesque eyayiza kuqalisa kwiinkulungwane ezimbini kamva ize igqithe imida yenkulungwane ye-15 ukuze ibekho kangangexesha elithile namaGothic akhankanywe ngasentla. Okulandelayo, siza kukubonisa imizekelo eli-XNUMX yoyilo lweRomanesque eSpain. Kodwa okokuqala sifuna ukuthetha nawe malunga neempawu ezibonisayo.

Yintoni iRomanesque

Inqaba yaseLoarre

Inqaba ekhangayo yaseLoarre

Ke ngoko, i-Romanesque yindlela yokuqala yenkcubeko kunye neyobugcisa eyenziwe ngu Impucuko yaseYurophu neyobuKristu. Enyanisweni, uninzi lwemisebenzi yakhe lunxibelelene nehlabathi lonqulo. Ngokuphathelele ulwakhiwo, uninzi lwezakhiwo zalo iicawe, izindlu zoonongendi kunye nezindlu zoonongendi, nangona nazo zazakhiwe iinqaba kunye neenqaba.

Sinokuthi yavela ngaxeshanye kwiintlanga ezininzi nakwiindawo (EFransi, España, usingasiqithi waseItali kunye nemimandla yaseJamani). Kodwa i-homogeneity yabo yayinento eninzi yokwenza nayo imiyalelo yenkolo efana naleyo yaseCistercian naseCluny, eyathi, ekwandiseni kwayo kulo lonke ilizwekazi, yayithatha yonke indawo. Ngokunjalo, ukwenziwa ngokubanzi kobugcisa beRomanesque kwaphenjelelwa yi uhambo ngezonqulo eSantiago de Compostela kubo bonke Europe.

Ezi zinto zimbini zikhuthaze ukwakhiwa kweecawe ezintsha kunye nezindlu zoonongendi kwezona ndawo zihlukeneyo ngelixa zikwabonelela ngomsebenzi kubaqingqi bemifanekiso nabapeyinti abahombisa iitempile.

Iimpawu zoyilo lweRomanesque kunye nemizekelo eSpain

Ii-arches ezijikelezayo

Ii-arches ze-semicircular, izinto ezisisiseko ze-architecture ye-Romanesque

Eyona nto iqhelekileyo kunye nesisiseko esakhayo sesitayile i-arc semicircular okanye isiqingatha sesangqa. Kwaye, ngokulandelayo, i-oven okanye i-barrel vaults (ikota sphere) ukugquma izakhiwo. Ukongeza, ezi zinkulu kunezo zangaphambili zangaphambi kweRomanesque.

Kwelinye icala, njengenkxaso, zikwasetyenziswa iintsika zecylindrical okanye ezinqamlezayo. Ke zona iintloko zeetempile, zenziwe zangaphakathi igubu elisiqingatha kwaye zihonjiswe ngee-arches kunye neebhendi (ekuthiwa zii-arches zeLombard, eziziindawo ezingaboniyo). Amaqweqwe yisikhumbuzo kwaye, amaxesha amaninzi, kumlilo, oko kukuthi, kunye nokunciphisa okuqhubekayo ukuya ngaphakathi. Kwaye, njengento ekrwada, ilitye lisetyenziswa, ngokuqhelekileyo lingacocwa. Ekugqibeleni, sele kwiRomanesque kade, babeka imifanekiso eqingqiweyo yokuhombisa kwii-facades.

Ezi, ngokuthetha ngokubanzi, iimpawu zoyilo lweRomanesque kwi España kwaye kwezinye iindawo Europe. Sakuba sicacisiwe, siza kubona imizekelo eyi-15 yeyona ibalaseleyo kwilizwe lethu.

ICathedral yaseSantiago de Compostela, imizobo yeRomanesque eSpain yabhengezwa njengeNdawo yeLifa leHlabathi

Catedral de Santiago

ICathedral yaseSantiago de Compostela, mhlawumbi owona mzekelo ubalaseleyo woyilo lweRomanesque eSpain

Ngomnye weyona mizekelo mikhulu yoyilo lweRomanesque eSpain kwaye ihlelwa njenge Ilifa lehlabathi ukususela 1985. Ukwakhiwa kwayo kwaqala ngenkulungwane ye-XNUMX, emva kokuba imikhosi ye IAlmanzor Bayitshabalalisa itempile yamandulo. Ukungcwaliswa kwayo kwenzeka ngonyaka we-1211, nangona imisebenzi yaqhubeka ngenkulungwane ye-XNUMX.

Ngokunjalo, ezinye zezona ngcali zibalaseleyo zelo xesha zazisebenza apho, ezinje, umzekelo, UBernard uMdala okanye ootitshala uEsteban noMateo. Kuyo yokugqibela ngenxa ebalaseleyo portico yoBuqaqawuli. Nangona kunjalo, enye yezinto ezimangalisayo zecathedral, i I-facade ka-Obradoiro I-baroque kwaye ibangelwa ngumyili wezakhiwo Izindlu zaseNovoa.

Indawo ebiyelwe ngodonga kwinqaba yaseCardona

Inqaba yaseCardona

I-Cardona Castle, namhlanje indawo yokumisa abakhenkethi

Ibekwe kuloo dolophu kwiphondo lase Barcelona, ibiyiNational Monument ukususela ngo-1931. Ukwakhiwa kwayo kwaqala ekupheleni kwenkulungwane ye-XNUMX ngokomyalelo we UWifred oneenwele, inkosi yelo xesha. Phakathi kwezakhiwo eziyenzayo, i Icawa yaseSan Vicente, kodwa kwakhona, ngaphakathi kwendawo yokuhlala, amagumbi Golden kunye Mezzanine. Ungandwendwela indawo enzima kwaye uhlale khona, kuba isebenza njengendawo yokumisa abakhenkethi.

I-Monastery yaseSanta María de Ripoll

USanta Maria de Ripoll

I-Monastery yaseSanta María de Ripoll

Asisuki eCatalonia ukukuxelela malunga nalo mmangaliso woyilo lweRomanesque eSpain oya kuyifumana kwiphondo laseSpain. IGerona. Yindlu yeemonki yaseBenedictine eyasekwa, nayo, ngo UWifred oneenwele malunga nonyaka wama-880 kwaye ebifanele ukuba ibe yindawo yokungcwaba amanani e-Barcelona. Ngokunjalo, ngexesha lamaXesha Aphakathi yaba liziko elibalulekileyo lokusasaza inkcubeko. Ukususela ngowe-1913 iye yaba yiAsethi yoMdla weSizwe.

Icawa yaseSan Clemente de Tahull

Engcwele uClement waseTahull

Icawa yaseSan Clemente de Tahull

Ngoku sidlulela kwiphondo lase Lleida ukukubonisa icawa yaseSan Clemente de Tahull, entliziyweni yentlambo yaseBohí. Kwangaxeshanye, yenza i-complex echazwe kunye nezinye iitempile zaseRoma kule ndawo. Ilifa lehlabathi. Ibalasele ngeplani yayo ye-basilica egqibeleleyo kwaye, ngaphezu kwayo yonke, ngokumangalisayo kwayo intsimbi yentsimbi yemigangatho emithandathu, eyisikwere kwaye ikhululekile kwaye iphendula kwi Isitayela seLombard Romanesque.

IMonastery yasePoblet

Icwecwe

I-Poblet Monastery, enye igugu loyilo lwe-Romanesque eSpain

Kwakhona kwiphondo le ITarragona Sifumana iisampulu ezingaqhelekanga zobugcisa beRomanesque eSpain. Le monastery ithathwa njengomzekelo ogqibeleleyo we i-abbey ye-cistercian kwaye yakhiwa ngenkulungwane ye-12. Uya kuyifumana kwindawo yeBarberá, ngakumbi, kumasipala we IVimbodí kunye nePoblet. Isetyenziswa njenge pantheon yasebukhosini ngookumkani bokugqibela be Isithsaba saseAragon, ikwanjalo Ilifa lehlabathi.

ICathedral yaseSan Pedro de Jaca

Icawa yaseJaca

San Pedro Cathedral eJaca

Ukwakhiwa kwayo kwaqala ngenkulungwane ye-11, kwangaxeshanye kwakusakhiwa iSantiago. Oku akuyonto nje yazenzekela, kodwa sisiphumo ukuphakanyiswa kwendlela yohambo ngezonqulo, ababefuna ukubalaselisa ngeetempile ezintle. Yenze uhlengahlengiso olwahlukeneyo oluye lwasigquma isimbo sayo seRomanesque. Kodwa isabonakala, ngaphezu kwayo yonke into, ngaphakathi nakwenye yeengcango zayo.

I-Monastery yaseSan Juan de la Peña

San Juan de la Pena

I-monastery ephawulekayo yaseSan Juan de la Peña

Ikwimeko-bume yendalo enomtsalane, njengoko ibekwe phantsi kwelitye elikhulu eligqojoziweyo ukuze ihlale amanye amagumbi ayo. Umzekelo, i icawa yaseMozarabic. Yeyedolophu yase Botaya, kumasipala we Iponi. Ikwasebenza njengengcwaba labaninzi ookumkani baseAragon kwaye iyinxalenye yecandelo laseAragonese le Indlela kaSantiago.

Inqaba yaseLoarre

Inqaba yaseLoarre

IPanoramic yeLoarre Castle

Ubugcisa beRomanesque babusetyenziselwa ukwakhiwa kwezakhiwo zoluntu. Umzekelo omhle wale nto yinqaba yaseLoarre, oya kuyifumana ngaphandle kokushiya iphondo Huesca, ngokuba ikwi Ummandla weHoya. Ngapha koko, yeyona nto ibalulekileyo kunye neyona igcinwe i-Romanesque complex kwilizwe lethu. Yaqala ngenkulungwane ye-11 nakwi-complex iinqaba zaseHomenaje kunye neKumkanikazi. Njenge-anecdote, siya kukuxelela ukuba yavela kwiifilimu ezinje Igama le rose o ubukumkani bamazulu.

I-Monastery yaseSan Salvador de Leyre

Monastery yaseLeyre

I-Monastery yaseSan Salvador de Leyre

Ngoku sibuyela kwi Uluntu lwasekuhlaleni lwaseNavarra ukufumana lo mmangaliso woyilo lweRomanesque eSpain. Yindlu yeemonki yaseBenedictine eyangcwaliswa ngenkulungwane ye-11 eye yasebenza, njengoko kwezinye iimeko zangaphambili, njengendlu yasebukhosini, kule meko iinkosi zaseNavarre. Ukongeza, yaba iziko inkcubeko kunye yokomoya ebalulekileyo kwi Amaxesha aphakathi.

Icawa yaseSanta María de Eunate

UMariya oNgcwele wase-Eunate

Icawa yaseSanta María de Eunate

Asizange siyishiye iNavarra ukuze sikubonise lo mmangaliso ubekwe kumgama oziikhilomitha ezimbini ukusuka Muruzábal. Kukholelwa ukuba ukwakhiwa kwayo, okwabhalwa ngenkulungwane ye-12, kwakungenxa ye ulungelelwano lweTempile, nangona ingavunywanga. Njengeempawu eziphawulekayo, sincoma ukuba ujonge isicwangciso somgangatho we-octagonal kunye nayo igumbi langaphandle.

Inkonzo yaseRoyal Collegiate yaseSan Isidoro

Engcwele Isidore

Inkonzo yaseRoyal Collegiate yaseSan Isidoro eLeón

Kungenzeka njani ukuba kungenjalo, UCastile noLeon Ineminye yeyona mizekelo ibalaseleyo yoyilo lweRomanesque eSpain. Le cawa idibeneyo ibekwe kwesi sixeko sikhankanywe mva kwaye ithathwa njengenye yezona zakhiwo ziphumeleleyo zesi simbo kwilizwe lethu. Ezinye zezinto zayo ezibalulekileyo zi I-Royal Pantheon ngemifanekiso yakhe, basilica isidorian neengcango zayo zeMvana kunye neyoXolelo kunye ne imyuziyam yobugcisa obungcwele.

San Martin de Frómista

San Martin de Frómista

Icawa yaseSan Martín de Frómista

Siyaqhubeka eCastilla y León, kodwa kwiphondo le I-Palencia, ukwazi le monastery yasekwa ngonyaka we-1066 ngu UNksk. Sodolophu, Ubabalwa waseCastile. Ngaphandle, idome yayo ene-octagonal ngaphezulu kwe-transept kunye nayo iinqaba ezimbini cylindrical kwi-facade. Ngokubhekiselele ngaphakathi, jonga kwi amashumi amahlanu amakomkhulu yeenqanawa.

Icawa yaseCollegiant yaseSanta Juliana

Icawa yaseCollegiant yaseSanta Juliana

Icawa enkulu yaseSantillana del Mar

Ifumaneka kwidolophu yaseCantabrian ISantillana del Mar, yakhiwa ngenkulungwane ye-12 kwitempile yangaphambili. Uya kuyithanda ngakumbi i-façade yayo ephambili, ene-arch enkulu ye-semicircular kwaye, ngaphezulu kwayo, ifrieze emele ipantokrator. Ngaphezu koko, ngaphakathi, ine-a umhombiso otyebileyo oqingqiweyo eqhelekileyo yeRomanesque kade.

Indawo yokuphumla yaseRoma yaseSanto Domingo de Silos

I-Romanesque cloister

Indawo yokuhlala yaseRomanesque yaseSanto Domingo de Silos

I-Cloister ye-monastery yaseBurgos yase- Engcwele uDominic waseSilos Ithathwa njengenye yezona zinto zibalaseleyo zoyilo lweRomanesque eSpain. Yakhiwa phakathi kwenkulungwane ye-11 neye-12 yaye ibalasele kumakomkhulu ayo yaye, ngaphezu kwako konke, ngobuhle bayo obumangalisayo. ii-bas-reliefs ezinemixholo yonqulo ezinje ngo-Annunciation, iPentekoste okanye amathandabuzo kaSaint Thomas.

Icawa yeCollegiant yaseSanta María laSodolophu

Icawa yaseToro Collegiate

Icawa yaseSanta María la Mayor eToro

Ngoku siya kwidolophu yaseZamora Toro ukubona icawa yayo enomtsalane. Abakhi bayo, abayakha ngenkulungwane ye-12, bakhuthazwa yi- Zamora Cathedral. Ngokunjalo, yasebenza njengomzekelo kwixhegokazi lika Salamanca. Ungalibali ukujonga i-façade engasentla kunye nenomtsalane Iveranda yobungangamsha, nangona le sele sele igothic. Ngaphezu koko, kwi-sacristy yayo kukho encinci imyuziyam yobugcisa obungcwele ngeziqwenga zeflamenco.

Ukuqukumbela, sikubonise imizekelo eyi-15 ye Uyilo lweRomanesque eSpain. Kodwa, njengoko uya kuqonda, kukho ezinye ezininzi. Umzekelo, i Icawa yoMnqamlezo weNyaniso en isikhumbuzo Segovia, la Icawa yaseSan Pedro de Cervatos eCantabria okanye kwi Icawa yaseSanta María la Real eSangüesa (Navarra). Yiza ubone ezi zakhiwo zimangalisayo.


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