Uninzi lwezikhululo zikaloliwe ezintle eSpain

Isikhululo saseToledo

Uninzi lwazo izikhululo zikaloliwe ezintle kakhulu eSpain bexesha apho uloliwe yayiyi eyona ndlela yothutho. La mandla, angqamana malunga nesiqingatha sesithathu sokugqibela senkulungwane ye-XNUMX kunye nesiqingatha sokuqala se-XNUMX, senza ukuba kube yimfuneko ukwakha izakhiwo ezikhulu zabakhweli kunye nee-convoys.

Kodwa abo babejongene nezi zakhiwo babenganelisekanga kukuzenza zisebenze. Yayilixesha apho, ngaphezu koko, babefuna ukuhamba ileyibhile yakhe yobugcisa. Ngenxa yoko, izikhululo zikaloliwe ezintle kakhulu eSpain ziye zahlala, ezi imimangaliso yokwakha yokwenyani ngaphandle kokuphulukana nexabiso layo lokusebenza. Siza kukubonisa ezinye zazo.

Isikhululo seCanfranc

Isikhululo seCanfranc

ICanfranc, enye yezona zikhululo zikaloliwe ezintle eSpain

Siqala ukhenketho lwethu kwesinye sezikhululo eyona mifuziselo yaseSpain, leyo, ngaphezu koko, namhlanje isetyenziselwa kuphela iinkonzo zabahambi. Nangona kunjalo, yakhiwe ukuba ibe yindawo yokugqibela yokumisa kumgca lowo uya kumanyanisa iMadrid kunye EFransi kuhamba IAragón kwaye ngenxa yakhe Itonela leSomport, malunga namawaka amabini eemitha ukuphakama.

Yasungulwa ngo-1928 kwaye inemilinganiselo emikhulu. Njengesikhululo somda, kwafuneka sibe neeyadi zikaloliwe ezineegeyiji ezimbini ezahlukeneyo, iindawo zokuxhoma iimpahla, nendawo yokuhlala yabasebenzi neentsapho zabo. Kodwa kwakhona kwafuneka ukuba kubekho amasiko, izikhululo zamapolisa, iiposi kunye nezinye iinkonzo.

Ngoko ke, ukwakhiwa kuye Iimitha ezi-241 ubude kunye neplani yoxande yahlulwe yangamaqela amahlanu. Uphendula kwisimbo se Uyilo lwebhotwe laseFransi ukusuka kwinkulungwane ye-XNUMX kunye nokugqwesa kweefom zeklasikhi, kodwa kunye nezinto zolwakhiwo lwamashishini njengentsimbi kunye nekhonkrithi. Kwaye, njengembeko kwizindlu ezikuloo ndawo, inophahla lwesileyiti.

Ngokungathandabuzekiyo, iCanfranc yenye yezona zikhululo zikaloliwe zintle eSpain, kangangokuba ibe yindawo iinoveli kunye neemuvi (kukho nentsomi ethi eminye imiboniso Ugqirha Zhivago). Kungoku nje iyalungiswa ukuze kuhlalwe kuyo Aragon Railway Museum kunye nokuyinika ukusetyenziswa kwehotele kunye nabakhenkethi. Kukwacetywa ukwakha izindlu kunye neendawo eziluhlaza.

Isikhululo saseToledo

Isikhululo saseToledo

Isikhululo esihle saseToledo

Kuyamangalisa uyilo lwe-neomudejar Yasungulwa ngowe-1919. Ngenxa yesi sizathu, ikwabhengezwe njengendawo enomdla kwinkcubeko yaza yabuyiselwa kwiminyaka embalwa eyadlulayo. Uyilo lwayo lubangelwa ngumyili wezakhiwo Narciso Claveria, owalibala malunga nomsebenzi wokudala umsebenzi oyinyaniso wobugcisa.

Igubungela phantse ishumi elinesithathu lamawaka eemitha ezikwere kwaye iqulathe umzimba osembindini kunye namaphiko amabini asezantsi asecaleni. I-façade ihlotshiswe ngee-arches ze-lobed kunye neenqaba. Enyanisweni, yonke isethi ininzi ihonjiswe ngee-arches ze-Mudejar, i-tile mosaics, i-latticework nezinye izinto zesityebi segolide saseToledo.

Kodwa mhlawumbi isimboli sayo esikhulu yi kwinqanawa, ephuma kumzimba wesakhiwo kwaye nayo ine-Mudejar grillwork. Okwangoku, esi sikhululo esihle sisebenzela umgca wesantya esiphezulu La Sagra-Toledo, eyeyalowo usuka eMadrid ukuya eSeville. Ngaphandle kwamathandabuzo, esi sakhiwo ngummeli ofanelekileyo wokukwamkela ukuba uya kufumanisa imimangaliso ebalaseleyo yento ebizwa ngokuba "Isixeko seenkcubeko ezintathu".

Isikhululo saseMntla saseValencia

Isikhululo saseValencia

Isikhululo saseMntla saseValencia

IValencia inezikhululo zikaloliwe ezininzi, kodwa eyona intle yile ikwisitrato iJátiva, ecaleni kwendawo yenkunzi yenkomo kwaye ikufuphi kakhulu neHolo yeDolophu. yindala Isikhululo saseNyakatho okanye isikhululo se-Valencia-Term yaza yakhiwa ekuqaleni kwenkulungwane yama-1917 ukuze isungulwe ngowe-XNUMX.

Ulwakhiwo luneshumi elinesihlanu lamawaka eemitha zesikwere kwaye lwayilwa ngumyili wezakhiwo UDemetrius Ribes. Nangona kunjalo, yabo icanopy enkulu yentsimbi, ephantse ibe ziimitha ezingamashumi amabini anesihlanu ukuphakama, ngenxa Enrique Grasset. phendula ku Uhlobo lwanamhlanje kunye neempawu ze-neo-Gothic kunye ne-pre-rationalist impembelelo evela kumyili omkhulu wase-Austrian Otto inqwelo. Ikwahlulwe ibe ngamacandelo amabini: kwelinye icala, isakhiwo somkhweli esinesicwangciso esine-U kwaye, ngakolunye, i-hangar enkulu ephahleni yayo ixhaswa ngamatye ensimbi achazwe.

Ngokufanayo, i-façade ephambili yolo hlobo ihorizontalist yaye linemizimba emithathu egqamileyo nehonjiswe ngeenqaba. Kumhombiso wayo, imibala yengubo yengalo yaseValencia iyaphinda yenziwe kwaye, ngaphezu kwayo yonke, imotifs eqhelekileyo yegadi yeziqhamo yaseLevantine efana neeorenji kunye neentyatyambo eziorenji. Kuye zazisetyenziswa iiseramikhi ezikhazimlisiweyo, iimosaics, ibhastile kunye neglasi, njengokuba u-el yeca ethandwa kakhulu kwiCatalan kunye neValencian modernism. Njengoko usazi, ibandakanya ukudibanisa iithayile ezincinci zemibala eyahlukeneyo edityaniswe nodaka (enyanisweni, yeca inokuguqulelwa ngokuthi "inqunqwe").

IFransi, iBarcelona inesinye sezikhululo ezintle kakhulu eSpain

Isikhululo saseFransi

Umbono womoya wesikhululo saseFransi

Kukhenketho lwethu lwezikhululo zikaloliwe ezintle kakhulu eSpain, ngoku siza Barcelona, ngakumbi ngakumbi kwisithili se isixeko esidala, ukwazi i kwisikhululo saseFransi. Yasungulwa ngo-1929 ngesihlandlo se Umboniso jikelele iququzelelwe ngaloo nyaka yiBarcelona. Ngelo xesha, yabandakanya inkqubela phambili yobugcisa efana nezitshixo zombane, izithinteli zehydraulic kunye neepaseji ezingaphantsi komhlaba ukuhambisa urhwebo.

Kodwa umdla ngakumbi uvela kwindawo yokujonga izakhiwo. Iprojekthi yasezidolophini yaqhutywa ngu Eduardo Marystany, owaqulunqa isakhiwo esine-U ene-hangar ephindwe kabini kunye nomnyango ogobileyo kwiindlela. Ikwanazo neepaviliyoni ezimbini kwicala lesitrato ezidityaniswe kwindawo ephakathi. Esi sakhiwo sabahambi sayilwa ngu Pedro Muguruza, owaphakamisa umhombiso ophucukileyo kakhulu. Ngenxa yesi sizathu, kwagunyaziswa ukuba kuphuculwe oku Raymond Duran y ipelayo martinez.

Imilinganiselo yesitishi saseFransi iyamangalisa. Ukwakha isonga iingoma kwimilo engu-U kunye neehangers esizikhankanyileyo zigqunywe ngazo iicanopies eziimitha ezili-195 ubude neemitha ezingama-29 ukuphakama. Kwakhona, indawo yokwamkela iindwendwe ephambili ine izindlu ezinkulu ezintathu. Ngokufutshane, sesinye sezikhululo ezinomtsalane eSpain.

Isikhululo saseZamora

Isikhululo saseZamora

Isikhululo sikaloliwe saseZamora, esinesitayile saso saseNeoplateresque, sesinye sezona zikhululo zikaloliwe zintle eSpain

IZamora nayo ibalasele ngemilinganiselo yayo, kuba eyona façade iphambili inayo Iimitha ezi-90 ubude. Kodwa, ngaphezu kwako konke, sesinye sezikhululo ezintle eSpain ngenxa yayo isitayile se-neoplateresque. Ukwakhiwa kwayo kwaqalisa ngowe-1927, nangona yayingayi kumiselwa de kube ngowe-1958. UMarcelino Enriquez kumhlaba obekwe kwindawo yaseLas Viñas.

Kwasetyenziswa isakhiwo ilitye legolide laseVillamayor, nto leyo eyaba negalelo ekuyihombiseni ngakumbi. I-façade inamacandelo amathathu kunye nemigangatho emininzi, kunye neenqaba ezine zesikwere. Ngokunjalo, umkhuseli osembindini uphuma emaphikweni ngenxa yakhe i-terrace ene-pediment ye-triangular zihonjiswe ngamakhaka amabini kunye newotshi. intle ukuqhawula Iphefumlelwe yindlu yaseMonterrey de Salamanca, igqiba ukuhlobisa. Kwaye umgangatho osezantsi uneentsika zeRenaissance ezenza iigalari.

Isikhululo saseAranjuez

Isikhululo saseAranjuez

Isikhululo saseAranjuez

Mhlawumbi uyazi ukuba umnxeba Indawo yasebukhosini yaseAranjuez ingummangaliso omkhulu. Into osenokungayazi kukuba ubucwebe bayo bokwakha buqala kwisikhululo sikaloliwe ngokwaso. Enyanisweni, esi sixeko sincinane sasibalulekile ekuqaleni kwale ndlela yokuthutha kwintsimi yaseSpeyin.

Umzila kaloliwe wesibini owathi wadalwa kwilizwe lethu ngulowo uqhagamshelweyo eMadrid kunye noAranjuez. Ngaphambili, lowo udibanise Barcelona kunye Mataro. Nangona kunjalo, njengomnqweno wokwazi, siya kukuxelela ukuba uloliwe wokuqala okhoyo kwisizwe saseSpain wakhiwa Tyhubha. Ngokukodwa, yadibanisa iHavana kunye nesixeko saseGüines ngo-1837.

Kodwa, kubuyela emva Isikhululo saseAranjuezAyisiyonto yakudala. Le oyibonayo namhlanje yakhiwa phakathi kowe-1922 no-1927 yaye, njengaleyo yaseToledo, yaseToledo. isitayile se-neo-mudejar. Iqulethe i-nave ende yoxande embindini wayo. Inxalenye yangaphandle yale nto yayihonjiswe ngegable ngokujika ihonjiswe ngee-arches ezintathu kunye neefestile zeglasi. Ngaphezulu kwesakhiwo kuphakama a clock tower.

I-façade nayo ibalulekile izitena ezibomvu ezibonakalayo eyayisetyenziselwa ukwakhiwa kwayo. Yayibekwe phezu kwelitye elide leplinth kwaye ihonjiswe ngayo tile. Ngaphakathi, kwakhona, kukho ezahlukeneyo mosaics umhlobiso owenziwe ngesiTaliyane UMario Maragliano. Ngokwenxalenye yabo, iiplatifomu zigutyungelwe ngamacanopi axhaswe kwiintsika zentsimbi.

Isikhululo seConcordia

Isikhululo seConcordia

Isikhululo seConcordia eBilbao

Sigqiba ukhenketho lwethu lwezikhululo zikaloliwe ezintle kakhulu eSpain kule Bilbao, into emangalisayo onamhlanje. Ikwangoyena mdala kwaba sele sibakhankanyile, ukususela oko yasungulwa ngowe-1902 ukuze ifumane oololiwe ababevela. Santander Indawo. Umsebenzi wawubangelwa yinjineli Valentin Gorbena kunye nomyili wezakhiwo Severino Achucarro.

Igqame kuyo i-facade yayo esembindini ihonjiswe ngayo iithayile ezinemibala eqaqambileyo kunye neeseramikhi ezichaseneyo nentsimbi yokwakheka kwayo. Kodwa, ngaphezu kwako konke, iya kubamba ingqalelo yakho ifestile yerozi ukusuka phezulu. Ke yona inxalenye yayo yangaphakathi, yayo iingqukuva neengqameko zesinyithi;. Kodwa, ngaphezu kwakho konke, uya kumangaliswa yi indawo yokulinda, eqwalaselwe njenge imbono phezu kumbindi wembali yesixeko. Oku kunqabile kuyilo lukaloliwe kwaye kwenza esi sikhululo sihle sibe yindawo eyodwa.

Ukuqukumbela, sikubonise ezinye izikhululo zikaloliwe ezintle kakhulu eSpain. Kodwa, ngokungenakuphepheka, sibashiye abanye besendleleni. Umzekelo, ukuba Atocha eMadrid, ngoku enesitiya esikweleenjiko; leyo ye IAalmería, kunye nesiFrentshi kunye neefestile zayo; leyo ye UJerez de la Frontera, edibanisa i-Renaissance, i-Mudejar kunye nezinto zengingqi, okanye isikhululo esithobekileyo IPuebla de Sanabria, kwi Zamora, ngesimbo sakhe esithandwayo. Yiba nobuganga bokudibana nabo.

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