owakha udonga lwaseTshayina

Udonga lwase China

Enye yezinto ezimangalisayo kwimbali yethu ngu I-china yodonga olukhulu. Yisampulu yento enokwenziwa bubuchule kunye nokunyamezela komntu, kwaye ukuba uhamba uhambo oluya eTshayina, lolunye ubuncwane ongenakuphoswa.

Kodwa, ngubani owakha udonga lwaseTshayina? Nini yaye ngoba?

I-china yodonga olukhulu

udonga lwamaTshayina

Ngaphezulu kodonga olunye, udonga olukhulu lwaseTshayina Luthotho lweenqaba ezazakhiwe ecaleni kwemida esemantla eTshayina yamandulo ukuze zizikhusele kumaqela ahambahambayo asuka kwi-steppe yase-Eurasia.

AmaTshayina ayesele ezakha iindonga neenqaba zokukhusela imimandla yawo, esoloko ecinga ngemikhosi okanye amaqela axhobe ngamakrele nezaphetha, ngoko ezo ndonga zindala zazakhiwe ngamatye nomhlaba. Ngoko I-China yahlulwe yangamazwe ahlukeneyo ayesilwa kwaye kwenzeka njani kwezinye iindawo zehlabathi kusoloko kukho ophumeleleyo kwaye ukumanyanisa, nakwimeko yaseTshayina umlawuli wokuqala yayiyeyomnombo kaQin ngowama-221 BC

Wayalela ukuba zonke ezo zikhuselo zitshatyalaliswe, ekubeni ingcamango yayiza kuba nelizwe elimanyeneyo, kodwa igcinwe yaza yayalela ukuba kwakhiwe enye emantla, ngenxa yokuba kuphuma ingozi yangaphandle. Ukuthuthwa kwempahla kwakungeyondlwan’ iyanetha, ngoko abasebenzi babesoloko bezama ukubamba ezo zixhobo kwindawo. Akukho lwazi luye lwasinda ukuza kuthi ga namhlanje malunga nobude obuchanekileyo bolu lwakhiwo olukhuselayo, kodwa yayingeyonto yonyaka okanye iintsuku, kodwa iinkulungwane zomsebenzi osisigxina.

Udonga lwase China

Ukwakhiwa akuzange kugcinwe ngaphakathi kurhulumente we-Qin Dynasty kodwa kunoko waya phambili kwaye abalawuli be-Han kunye ne-Sui dynasties baqhubeka nemisebenzi. Ezinye iidynasties ezifana neTang okanye iNgoma azizange zinikezele kakhulu, kodwa ezinye iinkosi ze-feudal zenza, ngokweemeko zabo ezithile, ngoko sibona iindonga nakwi-Inner Mongolia.

bekufanele ukuba ifikile Ubukhosi beMing, ngenkulungwane ye-XNUMX, ukuze umbono wodonga olukhulu nolubanzi olukhuselayo luphinde lufumane amandla. AmaMongoli acathama kwaye kwakunzima ukubalawula ngokunjalo iindonga zaphinda zaphakama kwimimandla esemantla kwaye ilandele iprofayile yeNtlango yeOrdos, elawulwa ngamaMongol. Kodwa ezi ndonga zazahlukile, zomelele yaye ziyingcingane ngakumbi kuba kwakusetyenziswa izitena namatye endaweni yomhlaba.

Ukongeza, malunga nama-25 amawaka eenqaba zavela, kodwa ekubeni amaMongol kwakunzima kakhulu ukulawula udonga lwaluhlala lugcinwe, lwakhiwa ngokutsha, lomelezwa. Ngokomzekelo, amacandelo akufuphi nekomkhulu, iBeijing, aphakathi kwawona awomeleleyo. Umlawuli ngamnye wayenesabelo sakhe kwaye ngenxa yoko, uMing kwafuneka ajongane kungekhona namaMongol kodwa Ukuhlasela kweManchu ngenkulungwane ye-XNUMX.

Udonga lwase China

Kodwa ukuba uyayazi nantoni na ngembali yaseTshayina, iManchus kufuneka ivakale iqhelekile kuwe, ke ewe, ngenye imini abahlaseli bakwazi ukuwela uDonga oluKhulu lwaseTshayina kwaye. IBeijing yawa ngonyaka we-1644.  Kwasayinwa umfelandawonye kodwa ekugqibeleni iManchus yaphelisa ubukhosi bukaShun kunye nesalayo seMing kunye wadibanisa iQing Dynasty kulo lonke elaseTshayina. Ngaphantsi kolu bukhosi, i-China yakhula kwaye yakhanya, iMongolia yayifakwe kwimimandla yayo, ngoko ke ukugcinwa kweNdonga enkulu yaseChina kwakungasekho mfuneko.

I-China lilizwe ngokwalo, amaTshayina awazange akhathalele kakhulu kwihlabathi liphela ngaphandle korhwebo. Ngaloo ndlela, abemi baseYurophu babengazange beve okuninzi malunga nommangaliso woDonga Olukhulu okanye ukuba babevile, abazange bawubone. Nditsho noMarco Polo. Kodwa ke, akukhathaliseki ukuba iTshayina ifuna ntoni, kodwa iYurophu enyolukileyo, ngoko ke ekugqibeleni amaTshayina kwafuneka avule ilizwe lawo (emva kweeMfazwe ezimbini zeOpium ngokuchasene neGreat Britain neFrance), kwaye apho, ewe, uDonga Olukhulu lwalululo. umlinganiswa ophambili.

Ngamafutshane, kunokuthiwa oko IThe Great Wall of China eneneni yenziwe ngamacandelo aliqela akhiwe ngabalawuli abahlukeneyo ababandakanya iinqaba, iinqaba, iirampu, izakhiwo ezizimeleyo kunye nezinyuko. Ngaloo ndlela, kuthiwa kukho iindonga ezimbini ezicacileyo: iHan Great Wall kunye neMing Great Wall, amacandelo aqhubeka efunyanwa.

Udonga lwase China

Ukuba uya eTshayina icandelo elikufutshane neBeijing lelona lidumileyo kwaye ikwimeko engcono. Ngapha koko, unokufika apho nge-metro. Kamva, njengoko usiya kungena nzulu kweli lizwe, usenokubona amacandelo amadala, anganyanyekelwanga kangako, angamabhodlo, atyiwa luhlaza, yaye kukho nezinye iindawo ezonakeleyo. I-22% yodonga lwe-Ming, umzekelo, ilahlekile ngonaphakade, ngelixa kuqikelelwa ukuba iikhilomitha ezininzi zephondo laseGansu ziya kulahleka kwixesha elizayo ngenxa yokhukuliseko.

Ndwendwela udonga olukhulu lwaseTshayina

Udonga lwaseTshayina 7

Ngoko, kuyacaca kuthi ukuba i-Great Wall ayilona udonga olulodwa kunye nolubanzi kodwa iindawo ezahlukeneyo zokwakha. Isasazwe kumaphondo ali-16, izixeko kunye nemimandla ukuzimela ezifana neMongolia yaNgaphakathi, iShanxi, iShaanxi, iShandong, iHenan, iHebei, iGansu, iLiaoning, iBeijing, iNingxia, iTianjin nezinye iindawo ezininzi.

Ukuqwalasela ke indawo, i-landscape, izithuthi kunye neendawo zokutyelela sinokuthi kukho amacandelo asixhenxe eGreat Wall of China awona adumileyo ukutyelela:

  • Mutianyu: Licandelo elibuyiselweyo, elineendawo ezintle zomhlaba, akunzima kangako ukuhamba, elinabantu abambalwa. Inemoto yentambo kwaye ikumgama oziikhilomitha ezingama-74 ukusuka embindini.
  • jianshanling: isiqingatha sasendle, isiqingatha sibuyiselwe. Iindawo ezintle zomhlaba, kunzima kancinci ukuhamba, kunye nabantu abambalwa, kunye nemoto yentambo kunye ne-154 km ukusuka kwisixeko.
  • Simatai: Licandelo lasendle, ngaphandle kwabakhenkethi, i-140 km ukusuka kwiziko.
  • jiankou: Kusendle, kumgama oziikhilomitha ezingama-72 ukusuka embindini, akunandlela yentambo.
  • huanghuacheng: isiqingatha sibuyiselwe/isiqingatha rhabaxa. Ikumgama oziikhilomitha ezingama-80 ukusuka embindini, ayinayo intambo yentambo.
  • Gubeiko: endle kakhulu, akukho buyekezo lubonakalayo. Imimandla emihle, i-144 km ukusuka embindini, ngaphandle kwentambo yentambo.
  • ijuyongguan: eli candelo libuyiselwe, kuhlala kukho iindwendwe. Ikumgama oziikhilomitha ezingama-56 ukusuka embindini kwaye inayo imoto yentambo.
  • ukuhlamba: Ibuyiselwe, ihlala ixinene kakhulu, i-75 km ukusuka kwiziko. Ngentambo yentambo.

Ukuba uhamba nabantwana, ngokubanzi, elona candelo lihle yiMutianyu. Ukuhamba kuhle, kodwa ukuba uzimisele ukuhamba ngoko ungakhetha amacandelo ambalwa eludongeni eJinshaling, eSimatai naseGubebou. Ndithetha ngokuhamba kosuku olunye okanye ezimbini. Kwaye ukuba sele uyayazi into malunga noDonga Olukhulu, ke, icandelo e-Huanghuacheng linomtsalane kakhulu, linenxalenye ejonge echibini, umzekelo.

Okokugqibela, olunye uphawu lokuba zeziphi iindawo zoDonga oluKhulu lwaseTshayina olunokuthi lundwendwele:

  • Eyona ibuyiselweyo: Mutianyu
  • Eyona intle: Jinshanling.
  • Elona lirhabaxa kuzo zonke: Jiankou

Kwaye zilandelwa nguSimatai, uHuanghuacheng, uGubeiko, uJuyongguan, uHuangyaguan, uShanhaiguan kunye neyona nto idumileyo kubo bonke, iBadaling.

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