Zasekwa njani iiCanary Islands?

Las IItary Islands balichwebakazi phezu koLwandlekazi lweAtlantiki. Zikumntla-ntshona we-Afrika kwaye zizonke zimalunga neziqithi ezisibhozo, iziqithi ezintlanu kunye namatye asibhozo. Sithetha, umzekelo, ngeLa Gomera, La Palma kunye neTenerife, El Hierro, Fuerteventura, Lanzarote kunye neGran Canaria.

Kodwa indlela ezakhiwa ngayo iziqithi zeCanary? Yiyiphi inkqubo emangalisayo abazalwa ngayo?

Zaye zenziwa njani iiCanary Islands

Iziqithi zivela kwintaba-mlilo kwaye zikwipleyiti yaseAfrika, ngoko idibanisa ummandla owaziwa ngokuba yiMacaronesia. Bane a Imozulu efudumeleyo, kunye nokuguquguquka kwemozulu okuguqulela kuyo Ukwahluka kwezinto eziphilayo.

Zonke iziqithi zineendawo zolondolozo lwendalo, iipaki zesizwe kunye neendawo ezibhengezwe njengeNdawo zeLifa leMveli yeHlabathi. Ngaphambi kobhubhane, iziqithi zatyelelwa zizigidi kunye nezigidi zabantu, umzekelo, ngo-2019 kuqikelelwa ukuba babe neendwendwe ezizigidi ezili-13.

Kukwabalwa ukuba imvelaphi yayo yentaba-mlilo, ngokweminyaka yoMhlaba, yakutshanje: Iminyaka engama 30 yezigidi. Kukho iingcamango ezininzi ezibanga oko ukubunjwa kweziqithi kwakunamaxesha ahlukeneyo okanye imijikelo yentaba-mlilo ebandakanya inkqubo eqhubekayo yokuvela kwe-lava kunye nokuqina okulandelelanayo.

Ngaloo ndlela, isiqithi ngasinye kwiqela sinokuthi sinembali yaso yejoloji okanye i-antiquity kwaye mhlawumbi ezona ziqithi zindala yiFuerteventura kunye neLanzarote, kunye neTenerife, iGran Canaria kunye neLa Gomera ngasemva. Kutshanje kuya kuba yiLa Palma kunye ne-El Hierro, ngokungekho zigidi ezi-2 zeminyaka ubudala.

Ngoko le nkqubo okanye umjikelo ibiya kuba njani? Okokuqala, isigaba esibizwa ngokuba yiBasal Complex senzeka, apho uqweqwe lwe-oceanic crust kunye neebhloko ziphakama apho i-lava evela kuqhushumbo lwenkwili yafakwa. Emva koko iziqithi ziphuma emanzini kwisigaba esibizwa ngokuba yi "Sub-Aerial Construction".

Apha kukho imijikelo emibini, eyokuqala ngo series endala apho kwakhiwa khona izakhiwo ezinkulu zentaba-mlilo, kwaye emva koko kuthiwa series yakutshanje ukuba namhlanje kusele kwaye uphawu luyintshukumo esisigxina yentaba-mlilo. Ngamafutshane, sinokucinga i-magma esuka kumbindi weplanethi inyuka ngeentanda ezahlukeneyo kuqweqwe, iqokelelana kumgangatho wolwandle ize ivele kwinqanaba lolwandle.

Oku kwakunje kwizigidi zeminyaka, kwaye njengoko besitshilo, iyaqhubeka nanamhla ngomphunga wamanzi, iigesi zesulfure kunye nokuqhuma ngezikhathi ezithile. Ngokomzekelo, ugqabhuko-dubulo lwaseTeneguía kwisiqithi saseLa Palma ngowe-1971 okanye olona lwakutshanje, ngo-2021, xa intaba-mlilo engachazwanga yasoyikisa esi siqithi kangangeentsuku ezingama-90.

Iziqithi zaseCanary, ngendlela yazo, ziyimfihlakalo, kuba abumba elinye lamachwebakazi ambalwa awayilwa ziintaba-mlilo zaselwandle ezisaqhumayo, ngoko kwizazinzulu zinomdla kakhulu. zibalwa ubuncinane 18 ugqabhuko-dubulo kwiminyaka engama-500 ke inebali elihle kakhulu lentaba-mlilo kwaye ewe, asikasiboni isiphelo sayo okwangoku.

Izinto ezikhethekileyo zeziqithi ziye zaphefumlela iingcamango ezininzi malunga nokusekwa kwazo. Kwaba yimpumelelo ixeshana ithiyori yendawo eshushu ngokwendlela ezi ziqithi zavela ngayo kumjelo we-transoceanic phakathi kweAfrika neMelika. Yile ndlela iziqithi ezibonakala ngayo kwi-trail, eyona nto indala yizona zikude kakhulu kwimvelaphi yazo njengoko zihamba kunye ne-lithospheric plate.

Enye ingcamango yayiyiyo ukusasaza ithiyori yokwaphuka, ngokutsho oko, kunye nomjikelo wokunyanzeliswa kunye ne-distension ye-Atlas tectonic plate, kwakukho ukuphuka kwi-lithosphere eyasasazeka ukusuka kwilizwekazi ukuya kwi-Atlantiki, ishiya i-magma ekuvukeni kwayo, ithoba uxinzelelo kwaye ivumela ukuba ivele kwindawo umphezulu.

Kufuneka kuthiwe ezi ziithiyori kwaye azizange zamkelwe ngokupheleleyo, nangona ithiyori yendawo eshushu ithandwa kakhulu. Oku kuya kuchaza isizathu sokuba ezi ziqithi zisasebenza, ngaphandle kwezinye ezithi, okwangoku, zingabhalisi ukwenzeka kwentaba-mlilo. Ewe, ewe, le nkcazo isenayo imingxunya kodwa uphando lwezenzululwazi luyaqhubeka ukuzama ukuphendula yonke imibuzo.

Ke Ziziphi iimpawu ezintle neziyingozi zeZiqithi zaseCanary? kakuhle banayo enye Ukwahluka okukhulu kwelitye lentaba-mlilo ezigubungela yonke spectrum of alkaline basalts, kukho zonke iintlobo zemingxuma, zi-asymmetric kakhulu ngokuxhomekeke kwindawo apho umoya uvuthuza khona, okhokela i-magma kwicala elinye okanye kwelinye, ukongeza ukuqhuma kwepyroplastic kunye neebhombu, kwaye kukho kwakhona iimagmas ezahlukeneyo kwiziqithi kwaye ubuninzi bezakhiwo zentaba-mlilo phakathi kweecones, strata, craters, calderas...

Kwelinye icala, iziqithi zinandipha a imozulu yolwandle emnandi, kunye nemimoya yorhwebo, ngenxa yokuba kufuphi kweetropiki kunye nokuhamba kwe-El Golfo. Imimoya ityhala amafu enze ezo lwandlekazi zintle zamafu ezikwabangela ukuba kuvakalelwe ngathi amanzi olwandle aphantse ukuba maphuke yaye azole kakhulu.

Canary Islands yiparadesi kunye ubushushu obuphakathi enyakeni wama-25 ºC kwaye yiyo loo nto kwinqanaba labakhenkethi yinto eqhelekileyo.

Khohlo ulwazi olusebenzayo malunga nezona ziqithi zibalulekileyo:

  • IPalm: Ine-708.32 yeekhilomitha zeekhilomitha kunye nabemi abangama-83.458 amawaka abahlali. Intaba-mlilo yaseTeneguía imbi kakhulu, kodwa kulo nyaka uphelileyo kwabakho olunye ugqabhuko-dubulo olwabangela umonakalo. Isiqithi sesibini esiphezulu kwiqela, kunye nencopho yayo ephakamileyo yeemitha ezingama-2426, iRoque de los Muchachos. Ineyona teleskopu inkulu ehlabathini, iGran Telescope Canarias kunye nesibuko se-10, i-40 yeemitha ububanzi.
  • Isinyithi: Sesona siqithi sincinci esinolawulo lwaso: iikhilomitha ezingama-268.71 kunye nabemi abangamawaka ayi-11.147 kuphela. YiNdawo yeBiosphere Reserve kwaye ugqabhuko-dubulo olukhulu lwangaphantsi kwamanzi lwenzeka kwiminyaka elishumi eyadlulayo. Sisiqithi sokuqala ehlabathini ukuzibonelela ngamandla ahlaziyekayo.
  • I-Tenerife: Sesona siqithi sikhulu, sine-2034.38 yeekhilomitha zeekhilomitha. Ikwalelona lizwe linabemi abangama-928.604 amawaka. Waziwa njengo "isiqithi sentwasahlobo yanaphakade", inamanxweme amahle kunye neepaki zendalo ezininzi. Kwaye ewe, yeyona ifumana abona bantu batyebileyo babakhenkethi ngonyaka.
  • Gran Canaria: Sisiqithi sesibini esinabemi abaninzi kwiqela. Izikwekhilomitha ezili-1560 kummandla, ingqukuva ngokumila, kwaye ineentaba ezininzi. Yiba indawo zezinto zakudala yexabiso kunye neendawo ezahlukeneyo zomhlaba, ukusuka kumanxweme egolide, ukutyhubela intlango ukuya kwiindawo eziluhlaza kakhulu.
  • Fuerteventura: Ine-1659 square kilometers kwaye yeyona ikufutshane ne-Afrika. Ikwanjalo eyona indala ngokwembono yejoloji kwaye eyona ikhukulisekileyo. YiBiosphere Reserve ukusukela ngo-2009.
  • Lanzarote: Sesona siqithi sisempuma kwaye sesona sidala kuzo zonke. Ine-845.94 yeekhilomitha zeekhilomitha kwaye ikomkhulu layo yi-Arrecife. Ineentaba-mlilo kwaye ibiyiBiosphere Reserve ukusukela ngo-1993.
  • Onobubele: de kwakutshanje ibisaziwa kuphela njengesiqithana, kodwa namhlanje isisiqithi, isiqithi sesibhozo esimiweyo seqela. Kunqabile ukuba ibe ziikhilomitha ezingama-29 kwaye kuhlala abantu abangama-751.
Ngaba uyafuna ukubhukisha isikhokelo?

Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya uluvo lwakho

Idilesi yakho ye email aziyi kupapashwa.

*

*