IFlorence Cathedral

Florencia kungomunye wemizi ebukekayo e-Italy. Abantu abaningi bahamba izinsuku ezimbili noma ezintathu ohambweni olude ezweni lonke, kepha ngincoma ukuhlala isikhathi eside. Kuningi ongakubona! Noma kalula, ungaqasha ibhayisikili bese uhambahamba emigwaqweni yalo.

Esinye sezakhiwo eziyizifanekiselo zedolobha yi IFlorence Cathedral. Kuhle, kepha hhayi okukhanyayo. Into ethakazelisa kakhulu enayo nengincoma ukuthi ungayeki ukuyikhuphula ingaphakathi layo elisontekile elibheke edome futhi ukusuka lapho, bese ngijabulela ukubukwa okuhle kwedolobha namaphethelo.

IFlorence Cathedral

Ukwakhiwa kwayo kwaqala ngo-1296 futhi kwaphela ngo-1436. Ngaleso sikhathi ukwakhiwa kwezakhiwo ezinkulu kangaka kwakuthatha isikhathi. Ufundile Izinsika zomhlaba? nguKen Follet. Incwadi ichaza kahle inqubo ende neyinkimbinkimbi yokwakhiwa kwesakhiwo esinezici lezi.

ICathhedral esiyibona namuhla, kusuka USanta Maria del Fiore, bathathela indawo isonto langaphambili elalingasaneli ngokwanele inani elandayo labantu edolobheni. Lesi sakhiwo esisha sakhiwe ngu I-Arnolfo di Cambio, umklami nomqophi waseTuscan obuye waklama iPalazzo Vecchio neSonto LaseSanta Croce. Kepha u-Arnolfo ushone ngo-1310, ngemuva kweminyaka engamashumi amathathu esebenza, ngakho-ke iposi layithatha Giotto futhi ekufeni kwakhe, ngo-1337, wayengumsizi wakhe Andile Pisano placeholder image, aqhubeke phambili.

Kwakungebona bodwa abakhi bezakhiwo ababenakekela imisebenzi njengoba uPisano abulawa yi-Black Death eminyakeni eyishumi kamuva, futhi njengoba ukwakhiwa kwasabalala ngokuhamba kwesikhathi abanye abakhi bezakhiwo balandela le miklamo futhi benza neminikelo yabo. Ekugcineni, UPapa Eugene IV wakungcwelisa ngoMashi 1436. Linjani isonto?

Kuyinto isonto nge-nave emaphakathi enamabhayi amane nokuklanywa okujwayelekile kwe isi-latin cross. Ithempeli elikhulu, le Amamitha-skwele angama-8.300, amamitha ayi-153 ubude namamitha angama-38 ububanzi. Imengamo emaphasejini ingamamitha angama-23 ukuphakama futhi ukuphakama kwedome kungamamitha ayi-114.5. Futhi leli dome liyisimangaliso salo kusukela nangemva kwekhulu leminyaka kuqale ukwakhiwa kwethempeli elikhulu, laligqamile ngokungabikho kwalo. Kwakukhona imodeli kuphela, ebukekayo ngobukhulu bayo kanye ne-octagonal design.

Idome kumele libe lihle futhi wakunakekela lokho ekugcineni Brunelleschi. Waze waba nobukhazikhazi bokuya kwelinye ibanga futhi waqunga ukubeka ithoshi phezulu kwedome. Ngakho-ke, uphahla oluyindilinga lwaluthweswa umqhele webhola lethusi nesiphambano esinezinto ezingcwele.

Ngalo mhlobiso idome lafinyelela ekuphakameni kokugcina kwamamitha ayi-114.5. Umbani ushaye ibhola lethusi lagcina ngo-1600 kodwa lafakwa elinye elikhudlwana ngokushesha ngemuva kwalokho. kukholakala ukuthi nale bhola lethusi elisha laklanywa yinsizwa ULeonardo da Vinci, ukuthi ngaleso sikhathi wayesebenza eworkshop eyayiyinakekela. Noma kunjalo, kuhle.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, i-façade yoqobo ingumphumela womsebenzi wabadwebi abahlukahlukene futhi eminye yemisebenzi yokuqala yasuswa ngesikhathi sikaFranceso I de Medici lapho sishintshelwa kwisitayela se-Renaissance. Kwakukhona ukusontelana okuningi nokujika lokho kuze kube sekhulwini le-XNUMX leminyaka i-façade yayicishe ingabi nalutho.

Namuhla i-façade isesitayeleni se-neo-Gothic, ku imabula emhlophe, eluhlaza futhi ebomvu. Ifana nensimbi yensimbi nendawo yokubhabhadisela futhi ilula. Okukhulu kakhulu iminyango yethusi Babekwa ekuqaleni kwekhulu leminyaka, kusukela nge-XNUMX kuya kwele-XNUMX, futhi bamele izigcawu ezisuka empilweni yeNtombi-nto.

Kukhona ama-mosaics ngenhla kwawo nezinye izisetshenziswa ezingezansi. Futhi ngaphezu kweminyango kunochungechunge lwama-niches nabaphostoli abayishumi nambili futhi phakathi, iNcasakazi noMntwana uJesu. Futhi phakathi kwewindi le-rose ne-tympanum elinye igalari enebhasi labaculi baseFlorentine.

Uma ingaphandle lilula futhi lingahambisani kakhulu ne-chromatic, okufanayo kungaphakathi. Likhulu futhi cishe alinalutho ngakho-ke akukho okuningi ongakubona, kepha ukungena kumahhala ngakho-ke kuhlala kukhona abantu njalo. Ziyakhanya, yebo, zazo Amafasitela engilazi anemibala engama-44, inkulu ngesikhathi sabo, ibonisa izigcawu ezivela eTestamenteni elidala nelisha. I- ukukhala Yebo kungavakashelwa futhi uzobona amanxiwa amaRoma, amanxiwa elinye ithempeli elidala kanye nethuna likaBrunelleschi uqobo.

Idome lihlotshiswe ngezigcawu Zesigwebo Sokugcina nguGiorgio Vasari, yize edwetshwe kakhulu ngomunye wabafundi bakhe, iZuccari. Futhi njengoba ngishilo ngaphambili, ekuqaleni kokuthunyelwe, gibela ngaphakathi phezulu phezulu kwakho konke uphumele ngaphandle Yilokho okungafanele uyeke ukukwenza. Kumele ube namandla okuqwala Izinyathelo ezingama-463 nokusonteka ngemigwaqo emincane lapho uhlangana nabantu abahamba kolunye uhlangothi.

Okuhle ukuthi ungakuvula ukuvakasha ngoba i-dome ivula ngezinye izikhathi. Ikwenza kusuka ngo-8: 30 ekuseni kuye ku-7 ntambama yize ivaliwe ngamaholide.

Imininingwane ewusizo yokuvakashela iKhathedrali yaseFlorence

  • Amahora: vula uMsombuluko, uLwesibili, uLwesithathu nangoLwesihlanu kusuka ngo-10 ekuseni kuya ku-5 ntambama. NgoLwesine kuvulwa kusukela ngo-10 ekuseni kuye ku-3: 30 ntambama, kuya ngenyanga; NgoMgqibelo ivulwa ngo-10 ekuseni kuye ku-4: 45 ntambama kanti ngeSonto nangamaholide ivulwa ngo-1: 30 kuye ku-4: 45 ntambama. Kuvaliwe ngoJanuwari 1 no-6, iPhasika noKhisimusi.
  • Amanani: ithikithi libiza ama-euro angama-18 kumuntu omdala ngamunye. Izingane ezineminyaka ephakathi kuka-6 no-11 zikhokha ama-euro ama-3 kanti izingane azikhokhi. Ithikithi lifaka ukuvakashela isonto lombhishobhi, indawo yokubhapathiza, i-crypt, insimbi yensimbi kanye neMuseo della Opera.
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