IMasada, uhambo oluya emlandweni

Ngesikhathi ngiseyingane kwakukhona uchungechunge olwaludumile kakhulu lwe-TV olubizwa IMasada, idrama yomlando enezinkanyezi zesikhashana njengoPeter O'Toole, Peter Strauss noBarbara Carrera. Kungaleso sikhathi lapho ngaqala khona ukuzwa igama leMasada nendaba yalokhu inqaba ehlane lakwaJuda kwa-Israyeli.

Namuhla amanxiwa, amakhulu futhi asabazekayo, akha i- IMasada National Park futhi bakhona Amagugu Omhlaba, ngakho-ke uma ngolunye usuku uzovakashela kwa-Israyeli awukwazi ukubashiya emzileni wakho.

IMasada

Amanxiwa aqukethe izigodlo nezinqaba ezakhiwe egqumeni ehlane laseJudiya, eduze noLwandle Olufile, kwa-Israyeli wanamuhla. Uchungechunge lwethelevishini obhekise kulo ngenhla lusitshela ngezikhathi zokugcina empini phakathi kwamaJuda namaRoma, aziwa ngomlando njenge-Great Jewish Revolt. Abantu abangamaJuda baphephela lapha futhi amaRoma avimbezela le ndawo futhi bamvimbezela kanzima kwaze kwaba yilapho iziboshwa zikhetha ukuzibulala ngokuhlanganyela.

Ngakho-ke iMasada iyinto efanekiselwa ubuzwe bamaJuda nokuvuma kwayo njengabantu. Kusukela ngo-1966 yonke le ndawo ibiyiPaki kaZwelonke, kusukela ngo-1983 ibiyingxenye yeJudean Desert Nature Reserve futhi kusukela ngo-2001 iyindawo eyiGugu Lomhlaba ngokwe-UNESCO.

Indawo emi kuyo iMasada iyingxenye ye-tectonic massif encane, ngaphandle kokuguguleka okukhulu, okungajwayelekile ngokufana kodwa okufana kakhulu nephiramidi elingenalo iphuzu. Ithafa ngaleyo ndlela lilinganisa cishe amamitha angama-645 ubude ngama-315 ububanzi, nendawo ephelele engamahektha ayi-9. Ngasohlangothini lwasempumalanga kunamawa ukuphakama okungamamitha angama-400 kanti ngakolunye uhlangothi angamamitha ayikhulu. Ngakho-ke, ukufinyelela phezulu kunzima.

Yize izinsalela zezindawo zakudala zitholakele, ngokusho kwesazi-mlando uFlavio Josefo le nqaba yakhiwa yinkosi yaseHasmonean u-Alexander Janneo kanti ukutholwa kwezinhlamvu zemali ezithile kanye ne-stucco kusukela ngaleso sikhathi bekuzokhombisa ukuthi lo mbono awulona iphutha. Kodwa umlando osithandayo eMasada kamuva futhi kwenzeka ngesikhathi sokunqotshwa kweJudiya nguPompey.

Inkosi UHerodi, ngokudume kakhulu, wahlalisa amalungu omndeni wakhe lapha ngenkathi eya eRoma eyocela ukuxhaswa ukulawula isifunda. Le nqaba yabe isimelana nokuvinjezelwa kanzima ngamaParthi, futhi imvula eyisimangaliso kuphela eyabasindisa ekunqothulweni, njengoba babephelelwe ngamanzi. Phakathi naleso sikhathi, eRoma, uHerode wakuthola ukwesekwa ayekufuna wakubuyisa Inkosi yaseJudiya kancane kancane wasinqoba lesi sifunda, ekugcineni wabangela iJerusalema.

Kodwa zazinezikhathi ezinzima: esekelwa nguMark Antony Cleopatra VII wandisa umbuso wakhe, ngakho-ke uHerode waqinisa iMasada ecabanga ukuthi ngelinye ilanga wayezodinga indawo engehlula. Eminyakeni engamashumi ayisikhombisa ngemuva kokufa kwakhe, i impi yokuqala yamaJuda - impi yamaRoma selokhu kwashuba ku-crescendo. Iqembu lamaJuda anamandla lalisebenza ekuvukeleni, abanye bajoyina ngakho-ke ekugcineni iqembu ICopó Masada ibulala ibutho lamaRoma imi lapho.

Eminyakeni eyalandela le ndawo yayiyi-volcano futhi iMasada yatholwa njengendawo engalawuleki ngokukhethekile. Ngemuva kwalokho amaRoma alusukumela lolu daba futhi anquma ukubulala ababaleki abangamaJuda lapho wawuzungeza ngamakamu amaningi ezempi. Umkhuzi uhlele konke ngokuningiliziwe, egxile ekungeneni ngokungena emthambekeni osentshonalanga. Ngemuva kokuzama ngempumelelo ukugqobhoza izindonga, wanquma ukwakha umgwaqo okwathi ngemuva kwamasonto ambalwa wafinyelela kumamitha ayi-100 ukuphakama.

Ngemuva kwalokho izinyanga eziyisikhombisa zokuvinjezelwa I-ramp yaqedwa futhi kwakhiwa umbhoshongo wokuvimbezela insimbi ophakeme ngamamitha angama-30 phezulu. Ukusuka lapha amaRoma adubula futhi inqama eyayinikela odongeni yasebenza. Ngemuva kwesikhashana amaRoma abona ukuthi amaJuda akhe elinye elinzima ngemuva kodonga, ngakho bakukhansela ukuhlaselwa futhi basishisa leso sakhiwo.

AmaJuda angaphakathi eMasada ayesenkingeni futhi anquma ukuzibulala: amadoda abulala umndeni wakhe bese ekhetha abayishumi ukuthi babulalane bodwa. Kanjalo kuze kube yilapho sekusele indoda eyodwa kuphela eyathi, ngokuhlala yodwa, yashisa le nqaba. Lapho amaRoma ekugcineni engena, athola ithuna.

Kodwa iMasada yatholakala nini ngabavubukuli? Kwakusekuqaleni kwe- Ngekhulu le-XNUMX, ngo-1838 ngokuqondile. Kusukela lapho le ndawo yaba ngeyokuthakazelisa kakhulu futhi konke kwavubukulwa kwenziwa imephu. Ukumba okukhulu kwemivubukulo kwenzeka ngawo-60.

IMasada Tourism

Yini ongayibona eMasada? El entshonalanga complex Iyatholakala kusuka e-Arad, ngomzila 3199. Lapha uzobona indlela ye- ukwakhiwa kabusha kwemishini yamaRoma kusukela kusayithi kuya eMasada, i- umgwaqo wamaRoma ukukhuphuka kwawo kufaka phakathi kwemizuzu eyi-15 nengama-20 yokwenyuka, i- imithombo yasendulo yasenyakatho embiwa entabeni futhi, ngentengo ehlukile, ungahlala ukulala etendeni. kukhona nefayela le- umbukiso okhanyayo nomsindo ebusuku enkundleni yemidlalo.

Ethafeni elisentabeni kukhona amanxiwa eSigodlo saseNyakatho, okusele esigodlweni sikaHerode esizimele esinezitezi ezintathu esinendawo yaphansi nemidwebo yobumba eseyakhiwe kabusha, amanxiwa isinagoge kuphela elalisele kusukela ngesikhathi seThempeli Lesibili, igumbi lapho kwatholakala khona amagama abo bonke abashayi, iqembu lamaJuda amaningi elalivalelwe eMasada ngesikhathi sokuvukela umbuso, a isonto lase-byzantine eyakhiwe izindela ezizimele futhi ezinezitezi zemibalabala, i- Isigodlo saseNtshonalanga, inkulu futhi isukela esikhathini sikaHerode, i ama-roman baths, amakamelo omphathi anemidwebo emifushane kanye ne- ithangi laseningizimu, isikhala esikhulu ngaphansi kwentaba.

Ukungena kusuka oLwandle Olufile, umzila 90, umuntu ungena ngomnyango osempumalanga lapho kukhona khona i- Isitolo sezipho, isiteshi sosizo lokuqala, a indawo yokudlela ne-cafe.

Futhi nayi i- IMasada Yigal Yadin Museum, ivulwe ngo-2007, enikeza okuhlangenwe nakho okulandisayo kwemicimbi ezungeze inqaba, inikeze okuhle Isizinda ekuvakasheni, i- ikhebula okukuyisa emnyango weNyoka Way, okunzima kakhulu, manje ongambozwa ngezinyawo, okubandakanya ihora ukuya phezulu nohhafu phansi.

Ukuvakasha kuhle impela. Ungakwazi bhuka ukungena eMasada National Park online, ngokusebenzisa iwebhusayithi esemthethweni, ukhetha usuku.

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