Amathempeli aseMegalithic aseMalta

Umhlaba unezinto eziningi izindawo eziyimfihlakalo, kwalabo okuncane okwaziwayo futhi okuningi kucatshangwa. IMalta ingomunye wabo noma, ikakhulukazi, amathempeli amakhulu eMalta. Uyabazi? Azikukhathazi?

IMalta iyingxenye ye-European Union futhi yize incane yizwe lapho kuhlala khona abantu abaningi. Lapha, kule geography engajwayelekile namuhla evakashelwe kakhulu izivakashi ngenxa yesimo sezulu esifudumele, zintathu Amagugu Omhlaba namathempeli amaningi we-megalithic aphakathi kwamadala amadala kakhulu futhi ayindida kakhulu emhlabeni.

Malta

Kuyinto a izwe elizimele eliseningizimu ye-Italy nokuthi yize kuye kwaba semuseni wamazwe ahlukene kuwo wonke umlando wawo, kodwa, kusukela ngo-1964, izimele ngokweqiniso. Kuyinto izwe lesiqhingi yakhiwa iziqhingi ezintathu, iMalta uqobo, iGozo neComino. Kukhona nezinye iziqhingi ezincane.

Isimo sezulu saseMalta kufudumele ehlobo nasebusika lina kancane. Yingakho izivakashi eziningi ziyahamba. Ngamabhishi ayo futhi ngokusobala, kulawa mathempeli e-megalithic anelukuluku lokwazi.

Amathempeli aseMegalithic aseMalta

Kunamathempeli ayisikhombisa e-megalithic eMalta i-UNESCO ewamukela njengezindawo zamagugu omhlabas. BaseMalta nasesiqhingini saseGozo. Kokuqala kunamathempeli kaHagar Qim, Mnajdra noTarxien, Ta'Hagrat noSkorba ngenkathi eGozo kunamathempeli amabili amakhulu aseGgantija.

Konke kunjalo izakhiwo ezinkulu zomlando okukholelwa ukuthi yakhiwa phakathi nenkulungwane yesine neyesithathu yeminyaka BC Bephakathi kwezakhiwo zamatshe zokuqala ezakhiwe emhlabeni futhi batelekela ukwakheka nokuhlobisa kwabo. Iqiniso ukuthi inkimbinkimbi ngayinye ihlukile futhi ingubuciko wobuciko bokufeza ubuchwepheshe obumele.

Ochwepheshe bathi itshe lesikhumbuzo ngalinye linamasu ahlukile, icebo nokukhuluma nakuba kunezici ezithile ezivamile njengeparao elliptical ngaphambili ne-facade ye-concave. Ngokuvamile, umnyango utholakala ngaphambili, maphakathi nendawo engaphambili, uvula umgudu omkhulu onegceke eligandayiwe kanti ingaphakathi lawo lakhiwe ngamakamelo ayindilinga ayindilinga ahlelwe ngokulingana ohlangothini ngalunye lwe-eksisi yesakhiwo.

La makamelo ahlukahluka ngenani kuye ngesakhiwo, kwesinye isikhathi kuba namakamelo amathathu, kwesinye isikhathi amane noma amahlanu, mhlawumbe ayisithupha. Kukhona amatshe avundlile namatshe amakhulu amileKukholakala ukuthi kwakukhona uphahla futhi konke kusikisela ukuthi indlela yokwakha iveza ubuningi bokubukeka. Itshe elisetshenzisiwe liyatholakala endaweni, linjalo itshe lama- coral yezindonga zangaphandle kanye no i-limestone ethambile ngezinto zangaphakathi nezokuhlobisa. Yebo, kunemihlobiso ethile ngaphakathi ezakhiweni futhi iveza nezinga elithile lobuciko.

Eyani izakhi zokuhlobisa Siyakhuluma? Amaphaneli ahlotshiswe ngezimbobo, ama-spiral motifs, izihlahla, izitshalo nezilwane awekho. Kukholakala ukuthi, kusukela ekwakhiweni kwezakhiwo nokuhlobisa, ukuthi lezi zakhiwo zasendulo zagcwalisa ezinye indima yesiko emphakathini owakhele zona.

Cishe lonke ulwazi ozoluthola mayelana namathempeli aseMalta avela ku ukuvubukulwa kwe-orthodox. Le sayensi, kusukela ekuhlaziyweni kwamathambo, izingcezu ze-ceramic kanye nemikhiqizo ehlukene, ikuthole lokho Abantu bahlala eMalta kusukela okungenani ama-5200 BC. Babehlala emihumeni kodwa ngokuhamba kwesikhathi bakha izindlu nemizana yonke. Kukholakala ukuthi ngaphezulu noma ngaphansi ngemuva kweminyaka eyi-1600 yokufika esiqhingini baqala ukwakhiwa kwala mathempeli amakhulu, namuhla namhlanje sibona okuthile okufana namathambo abo.

Ngemuva komzuzwana wenkazimulo nobukhazikhazi kubonakala sengathi Cishe ngonyaka wama-2300 BC leli siko elihle laqala ukwehla ngokushesha.futhi. Kungani? Kukholakala ukuthi ngenxa yokuqothulwa kwamahlathi ngokweqile, ukulahleka kwenhlabathi, inani elikhulu labantu nokusetshenziswa kwezinsizakusebenza kwezolimo… Kukhulunywa nangendlala, ukungqubuzana kwezenhlalo ezungeze inkolo ecindezelayo noma ukufika kwabahlaseli bangaphandle. Kodwa-ke, noma yini eyenzekile, isiko laseMalta lehla futhi kwaze kwafika abantu eBronze Age cishe ngonyaka we-2000 BC. C isiqhingi sasingenabantu.

Amanxiwa aziwa kakhulu yilawo eThempeli likaHagar Qim nalawo a-Mnajdra, ogwini oluseningizimu nentshonalanga yeMalta, lubheke olwandle lubheke esiqhingini esingahlalwa muntu saseFilfla cishe amakhilomitha ayisihlanu ukusuka. Leli thafa linezinhlobo ezimbili zamatshe amatshe amatshe, elingezansi nelinzima kakhulu yilona elisetshenziswe kwi-Mnajdra neliphezulu futhi elithambile elisetshenziswa kuHagar Qim.

UHagar Qim Kusho ukuthi 'amatshe amile' futhi ngaphambi kokuba kuvele amanxiwa ayembozwe yindunduma yamatshe okuvela kuyo amadwala ambalwa nje phezulu. Kukholakala ukuthi leli thempeli lakhiwa ngezigaba eziphakathi kuka-3500 BC no-2900 BC no inamatshe amakhulu kakhulu esiqhingini. Kunedwala elikhulu ngamamitha ayisikhombisa ngamamitha amathathu futhi linesisindo esingamathani angama-20.

Amanxiwa lawa aqala ukubhekwa ngonyaka we-1839 futhi kwembiwa kakhulu phakathi kuka-1885 no-1910. Endabeni ka-lAmathempeli aseMnajdra angamamitha angama-500 entshonalanga yeHagar Qim, duzane nencamu yenkangala ebheke olwandle. Le nxanxathela inezakhiwo ezimbili, ithempeli elikhulu elinamakamelo amabili ayisiyingi kanye nethempeli elincane elinelinye ikamelo.

Amathempeli wokubukwa kwezinkanyezi? Kungaba njalo. Umnyango omkhulu ubheke empumalanga nasekwindla nasentwasahlobo ama-equinox imisebe yokuqala yelanga iwela etsheni odongeni lwegumbi lesibili. Ehlobo nasebusika ilanga likhanyisa amakhona ezinsika ezimbili ezisephaseji exhuma amakamelo amakhulu.

Kuyinto enhle ngempela kusukela zombili izakhiwo zethempeli ziqondaniswe nomkhathi hhayi kanye ngosuku kodwa izikhathi eziningana: kuHagar Qim, ngokwesibonelo, lapho kusa imisebe yelanga idlula kulokho okwaziwa ngokuthi i-oracle futhi iphrojuse isithombe sediski elilingana cishe nalokho elikubonayo inyanga futhi, njengoba imizuzu idlula, idiski iyakhula futhi ibe yindilinga. Okunye ukuqondanisa kwenzeka ekushoneni kwelanga.

Iqiniso ukuthi le mibuzo yezinkanyezi ayivelakancane ngoba uma sikholelwa ekuvubukulweni kwemvelo ngaleso sikhathi lolo lwazi…. Kunedatha engalungile. Abanye abacwaningi basikisela eminye imibono ethakazelisa kakhudlwanaUmzuzu ofinyelela emvuthwandaba welanga kuma-solstices awulungisiwe kepha uyehluka nge-engela, uyanda noma uyancipha, we-eksisi yoMhlaba maqondana nendiza yokuhamba kwalo elizungeze ilanga. Lezi zinguquko zaziwa ngobuchwepheshe njenge- "the obliquity of the ellipsis" futhi zinebanga lama-23 degrees nemizuzu engama-27.

Ngakho-ke, umjikelezo omkhulu weminyaka engaphezu kwezinkulungwane ezingama-40 uyadalulwa futhi uma ukuqondanisa kukhule ngokwanele bazofaka iphutha elithile elibangelwe ngqo yilo mshophi oguqukayo. Kuleli phutha lapho kungenzeka ukubala ifayela le- usuku oluqondile lokwakhiwa kwamathempeli.

Ngakho-ke, esimweni samathempeli e-Mnajdra, ukuqondanisa kwawo kuhle kepha akuphelelanga kakhulu. Ngakho-ke ukubalwa kuphakamisa ukuthi ukuqondanisa okuphelele kumele kwenzeke okungenani kabili eminyakeni eyi-15 eyedlule: kanye ngo-3700 BC nangenye ngaphambili, ngo-10.205 BC. Badala kakhulu kunalokho okushiwoyo.

Kuyivelakancane kakhulu ... Kepha okwengeza imfihlakalo ukuthi ngaphezu kobudlelwano bakhe nezinkanyezi amathempeli asezingeni eliphakeme aseMalta aveza izinga elikhulu lokuthuthuka kwezibalo nobunjiniyela. Uthi bewazi? Mhlawumbe kungenjalo, ngoba izinto eziphathelene nezinkanyezi, izibalo, nobunjiniyela obufezwe ngokuvamile zingaphandle kwesayensi yemvelo evamile. Futhi, akukho lutho emhlabeni olubukeka njengala mathempeli kanjalo khona uqobo kuyindida.

Ekugcineni, asikwazi ukukhohlwa ngokuxakaniseka kwe- Amathempeli aseHal Saflieniowaziwa ngokuthi iHypogeum. Inamazinga amathathu angaphansi komhlaba amamitha ayi-12 ukujula, isitebhisi esivunguza esehla namagumbi amabili aziwa njenge-Oracle neSancta Sanctorum. Kukhona futhi i- Amathempeli amatekisi, ngaphakathi lapho a isithombe esikhulu ngokuphakama kwasekuqaleni kwamamitha amabili nohhafu, abhapathizwe njenge Umama Unkulunkulukazi.

 

I- Amathempeli eTas-Silg namathempeli eSkorba kanye nojantshi abangajwayelekile abaqoshwe phansi itholakala ezingxenyeni ezahlukahlukene zeMalta futhi ihlangana nolwandle. Zibukeka njengophawu lwamasondo kodwa ngokuqinisekile azinjalo. Futhi ziyini? Hhayi-ke enye imfihlakalo.

Futhi-ke, uma ufuna ukwazi kabanzi ngokusola, ukucabanga, iziphakamiso, ukucabanga nokuningi ukuthi kukhona eduze kwamathempeli aseMalta kunezincwadi eziningi ezithakazelisayo namawebhusayithi. Indlela yami yokuqala yokuthola le mfihlakalo yayisuka ezandleni zakudala: U-Erich Von Däniken.

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