Cluj Napoca, yini ongayibona?

UCluj Napoca

Phendula umbuzo Cluj Napoca, yini ongayibona?, kusho ukukhuluma nawe mayelana nenhloko-dolobha yomlando yesifunda sase ETransilaniya, edume ngokuthi Vlad III the Impaler, okwaveza umlingiswa wemibhalo ka-Count Dracula. Ngakho-ke, itholakala enyakatho-ntshonalanga ye ERomania, esigodini somfula i-Somesul Mic.

Ngenxa yomlando wayo onezigigaba, i-Cluj ijulile amasiko amabili lapho isiRomania sibaluleke njengeHungary. Ngokunjalo, lokhu okwedlule kuyenze yaba nenani elihle lezikhumbuzo ezakhayo ifa elimangalisayo lezakhiwo. Kukho konke lokhu futhi ngaphandle kokuchitha isikhathi, sizokuphendula umbuzo othi Cluj Napoca, yini ongayibona?

i-Orthodox Cathedral

i-Orthodox Cathedral

Cluj Napoca Orthodox Cathedral

Nokho, isikhumbuzo sokuqala esizokhuluma ngaso nawe esakamuva. Kumayelana ne ICathedral Yokwenyuka, isakhiwo sesonto lobu-Orthodox esibaluleke kakhulu edolobheni. Ngoba lakhiwa eminyakeni engamashumi amabili ekhulwini elidlule.

Nokho, iphendula canons of isitayela se-brancovenesque. Ngaleli gama, okubangelwa UConstantin Brâncoveanu, owayengumlawuli we-Principality of Wallachia, uyaziwa I-Renaissance yaseRomania, eyaba nentuthuko phakathi kokuphela kwekhulu le-XNUMX nasekuqaleni kwekhulu le-XNUMX. Kuhlanganisa nezinto zesitayela saseByzantine

Isonto lama-Orthodox lisibuyisela leso sitayela futhi kungenxa yabadwebi bezakhiwo UGeorge Cristinel y UConstantin Pomponiu. Ngaphandle, igqame nge-façade yezitini netshe, kodwa, ngaphezu kwakho konke, ngedome noma i-cupola yayo, egqugquzelwe yileyo kaHagia Sophia e-Istanbul futhi isekelwa amakholomu ayishumi nesishiyagalombili aqoshwe kahle.

Ngaphakathi ethempelini, ngakolunye uhlangothi, ungabona imidwebo emihle yasodongeni ependwe ngayo Anastase Demian y UCatul Bogdan. Uzothola i-cathedral I-Avram Iancu Square, esizobuye sikhulume ngakho maduze nje, eduze kwesifanekiso salo sombusazwe oqavile wendawo.

Isonto lika-St

Isonto likaSan Miguel

Isonto elimangalisayo laseSan Miguel

Indala kuneyangaphambili, ngoba yakhiwa ngekhulu le-XNUMX ngokulandela imithetho ye- IsiGothic. Kodwa-ke, umbhoshongo wawo ukamuva kakhulu, njengoba wakhiwa ngekhulu le-XNUMX, kuyilapho uhlonipha isitayela salo lonke ithempeli. Yilokho kuphela isonto lesibili ngobukhulu eTransylvania (ngemva kwalokho I-Biserica Neagrâ eBrasov) futhi inkolo eyinhloko yamaKatolika edolobheni.

Ngaphandle, umnyango osentshonalanga umi ngaphandle, lapho ungabona khona amajazi amathathu wezingalo Sigismund of Luxembourg, inkosi yaseHungary neBohemia, kanye noMbusi Ongcwele WaseRoma. Sesikutshelile kakade mayelana nokuxhumana komlando kuka-Cluj ne-Hungary. Eqinisweni, iyaqhubeka nokubamba umphakathi omkhulu wamasiko walelo zwe kulo lonke elaseRomania.

Ngokuphathelene nengaphakathi lethempeli, kufanele ubheke i-altare, elisukela ekupheleni kwekhulu le-XNUMX; ku-sacristy yayo yekhulu le-XNUMX; emafasiteleni ayo amahle anezingilazi ezinemibala kanye nesitho sayo samapayipi esimangalisayo sekhulu le-XNUMX, umsebenzi we Johannes Hahn. Ngaphezu kwalokho, phambi kwakhe kukhona isifanekiso samahhashi esinikezelwe Matías Corvino, inkosi yaseHungary, eCroatia naseBohemia eyazalelwa edolobheni.

I-Avram Iancu Square nezinye izindawo ezivelele zedolobha

I-Avram Iancu Square

I-Avram Iancu Square enesithombe salo sepolitiki waseRomania ngaphambili

Njengoba sathembisa, sibuyela kulesi sikwele esalitshele ngaso lapho sikhuluma ngesonto lombhishobhi lama-Orthodox. Ngoba noma iyiphi impendulo yombuzo othi Cluj Napoca, yini ongayibona? Kusho ukuma ngokuzola kuwo. Hhayi ize, inenani elikhulu lezikhumbuzo edolobheni. Eduze kwethempeli esesikubonisile, kukhona Lucian Blaga National Theatre, isakhiwo esihle esinezimo ze-neo-baroque nemibala ejabulisayo. Abaklami bayo babengabadwebi bezakhiwo UFerdinand Fellner y Hermann Helmer futhi yakhiwa ekuqaleni kwekhulu lama-XNUMX. Kodwa-ke, kunezici ezithile ze-avant-garde endaweni yayo yokwamukela izivakashi.

Uzobona futhi esigcawini inkantolo, eyakhiwe ekupheleni kwekhulu le-XNUMX ihlanganisa izakhi zakudala ezifanayo nesitayela se-eclectic. Umdali wayo wayengumakhi Gyula Wagner.

Kanye nalezi zakhiwo ezimbili, ezinye izigodlo zitholakala kule ndawo yasemadolobheni. Phakathi kwazo, lezo zeSifunda, Zezezimali, zeDolobha Lobu-Orthodox kanye nezaseCaile Ferate Rômane (Inkampani Yesitimela YaseRomania). Ngakolunye uhlangothi, ku I-Iuliu Maniu Street, ebaluleke kakhulu e-Cluj futhi exhuma isikwele se-Avram Iancu nesikwele sase-Unirii (lapho ibandla likaSaint Michael likhona), futhi unesethi ebalulekile ye izakhiwo zesitayela se-eclectic.

I-Botanical Garden nezinye izindawo eziluhlaza

Ingadi Yezitshalo

I-Cluj Napoca Botanical Garden

I-Alexandru Borza Botanical Garden iyindawo engamahektha ayishumi nane eyakhiwa ngo-1872 yisazi nesifundiswa. USamuel Brassai. Njengamanje, iphethwe ngabakwa- Babes-Bolyai University, ephinde isebenze njengesikhungo sokufunda. Konke okumayelana nayo kuyathakazelisa, njengoba inezinhlobo zezitshalo ezingaba yizinkulungwane eziyishumi ezivela emhlabeni wonke.

Kodwa-ke, ezinye zezinto ezikhangayo eziyinhloko yi- Ingadi yaseJapan, okuhlanganisa indlu yendabuko yaseJapane, kanye ne ingadi yamaRoma, yona, enezinsalela ezimbalwa zemivubukulo ezivela kweyakudala napoca. Ngokufanayo, izindawo zokugcina izithombo zayo ezinezitshalo zasenkabazwe ziyathakazelisa kakhulu; yakhe I-Botanical Museum, cishe izingcezu eziyizinkulungwane eziyisikhombisa; i-herbarium kanye nesikhungo, lapho abafundi basenyuvesi becwaninga ngebhayoloji ne-geology.

Eduze kwale ingadi, enye indawo eluhlaza ongayibona e-Cluj Napoca iyona Ipaki Eliphakathi. Idalwe ngekhulu le-XNUMX, ibaluleke kakhulu phakathi kwezindawo zasemadolobheni zedolobha. Ibuye ihlotshiswe ngeqoqo elikhulu lezifanekiso ze-classical futhi ihlanganisa isakhiwo esimangalisayo se- yekhasino endala.

Iminyuziyamu yaseCluj Napoca

I-Bánffy Palace

I-Bánffy Palace, ikomkhulu le-National Museum of Art

Siqhubeka nombukiso wethu siphendula umbuzo othi Cluj Napoca, yini okufanele siyibone?, manje sifika endaweni eyifa lemnyuziyamu yedolobha. Futhi iqiniso liwukuthi inani eliphezulu labo elinalo liyamangaza. Ngokuqondile ku- isikwele semnyuziyamu une Umlando Kazwelonke waseTransylvania, yavulwa phakathi nekhulu le-XNUMX. Ngaphakathi, ungabona imibukiso engaguquki kusukela ezikhathini ezisukela ku-Prehistory kuya eNkathini Ephakathi, kanye nemibukiso yesikhashana.

Kodwa, ngaphezu kwakho konke, iqoqo layo lezingcezu ze- Isiko lase-Wietenberg, isigaba sokuhlobisa se-Bronze Age kuma-Carpathians esithatha igama laso, ngokuqondile, kusukela endaweni engaziwa etholakala ETransilaniya. Ngaphezu kwalokho, eduze nalesi sikwele une isonto lasefranciscan Isitayela se-baroque kanye nendawo yokuzalwa yalokhu okukhulunywe ngakho ngenhla Matías Corvino, isitayela se-Gothic futhi iphinde iguqulelwe emnyuziyamu. Ngokunjalo, iyindawo ejwayelekile yamabha nezindawo zokudlela edolobheni. Kodwa okuthakazelisayo nakakhulu ukuthi Pharmacy Museum, etholakala kufayela le- I-Unirii Square, etholakala lapho kwakukhona khona ikhemisi lokuqala laleli dolobha, lavulwa ngo-1573. Ungabona ngisho nokuzijabulisa okwakuyilabhorethri yalo. Nokho, kubaluleke kakhulu Imyuziyamu Kazwelonke Yezobuciko.

Lokhu kutholakala e- isigodlo sikaGiörgy Bánffy, okuyisakhiwo se-baroque esibaluleke kakhulu e-Cluj. Yakhiwe maphakathi nekhulu lama-XNUMX futhi inezindlu zamaqoqo amaciko ahamba phambili aseRomania. Isibonelo, kwabadwebi UNicolae Grigorescu y UStefan Luchian, kanye nomqophi UDimitrie Paciurea. Kodwa futhi inemisebenzi ababhali Hungarian ezifana József Koszta o István Réti. Futhi, ngaphezu kwakho konke, kusuka kubadali abakhulu baseYurophu njengeBaroque ULuka Giordano y UCarlo Dolci noma ezothando Louis Barye. Nokho, iqoqo layo elibaluleke kakhulu lena eqoshiwe, okufaka phakathi imisebenzi yabaculi abangcono kakhulu balesi simiso phakathi kwekhulu le-XNUMX nelama-XNUMX. Phakathi kwazo, Salvatore Rosa, Giovanni Piranesi u Hlonipha Daumier.

Ekugcineni, sizokutshela mayelana Umnyuziyamu we-Ethnographic, enamakomkhulu amabili. Esinye sazo yisakhiwo esiseduze ne-Unirii Square, lapho kuboniswa khona izinto eziningi zesikhathi esidlule njengamathuluzi, izikhali namathoyizi. Ngokuqondene nesesibili, singaphandle kwedolobha, endaweni evulekile. Yakhiwe ngabaningana izindlu zendabuko kusukela ngekhulu le-XNUMX kuya kwele-XNUMX lakhiwa kabusha.

Ezinye izikhumbuzo ze-Cluj Napoca

I-Iuliu Maniu Street

U-Iuliu Maniu Street ubonwa kusukela e-Unirii Square

Kukhona amanye amaphuzu ezithakazelisayo edolobheni laseRomania okufanele sikutshele futhi uma sifuna ukuphendula umbuzo othi Cluj Napoca, yini ongayibona? ngokuphelele. Ngakho, i Abathungi Bastion Yiwona kuphela umbhoshongo ovikelayo osale odongeni oludala lwekhulu le-XNUMX. Eqinisweni, yabhidlizwa yaphinde yakhiwa izikhathi eziningana, eyokugcina ekuqaleni kwekhulu le-XNUMX. Iphinde ibe nomnyuziyamu omncane womlando.

Eduze kukhona ibandla eliguquliwe, phambi kwalokho kume a isithombe sikaSaint George. Yakhiwa phakathi kwekhulu le-XNUMX nele-XNUMX futhi iphendula ku-canons yesonto lohlobo lwenqaba kanye nesitayela samaGothic. Ngaphakathi, ibuye igcine iqoqo elikhulu kunawo wonke lamajazi ezikhali eTransylvania. Akufanele uyiphambanise nelinye isonto elibizwa okufanayo, kodwa okuyi-neoclassical kusukela ngekhulu le-XNUMX.

Futhi, ngokunembile, uma ufuna ukubona izinsalela ze- inqaba yasendulo ephakathi, kufanele ukhuphuke uye ku Intaba yaseCetatuia, lapho unombono omangalisayo wedolobha nalapho kunetshe lesikhumbuzo elihlonipha labo abawa empini yezwe ka-1914-1918. Ngokufanayo, akufanele uyididanise ne- ICitadel eyakhiwe ngekhulu le-XNUMX. Yinqaba enamabhilidi amaningana, amasango amathathu nezingongolo emakhoneni.

Sengiphetha, siwuphendulile umbuzo Cluj Napoca, yini ongayibona? ngikubonise izikhumbuzo eziyinhloko zaleli dolobha elihle ERomania. Kusasele kithina ukuthi sikutshele ukuthi, uma uyivakashela, uzophinde uvakashele amanye amadolobha amahle kakhulu futhi anomlando eTransylvania afana I-Bistrita o USighisoara. Woza uthole le ndawo enhle yeZwekazi Elidala.


Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

*

*