Isebenza nguGaudí ngaphandle kweBarcelona

Indlu ebhuquza

I-Las Imisebenzi kaGaudí (Reus, 1852-1926) atholakala, ngaphezu kwakho konke, ku Barcelona. Hhayi ngeze, wayengumCatalan futhi waphila ingxenye enkulu yokuphila kwakhe e-Barcelona. Ngaphezu kwalokho, kuyo wazinikela kulokho okwakuyoba umsebenzi wakhe omkhulu ongakaqedwa: the Ithempeli elichazayo lomndeni ongcwele.

Nokho usishiyile nemisebenzi ezindaweni ezahlukene España. Ngokuvamile, lawa kwakungamakhomishana avela emindenini yezicukuthwane yesikhathi sabo, njengokuthi, ngokwesibonelo, lelo UMarquis waseComillas. Kodwa, kuzo zonke izimo, bancintisana ngobuhle nangokwangempela ngemisebenzi ayenza e-Barcelona. Ngaphandle kokuqhubeka kwesikhathi, ake sikubonise Imisebenzi eyinhloko ka-Gaudí ngaphandle kwe-Barcelona. Kodwa okokuqala sifuna ukukhuluma nawe mayelana nezici zesitayela sayo sezakhiwo.

UGaudi, umakhi ohlakaniphile

Isithombe sikaGaudi

Isithombe sika-Gaudí e-Comillas (Cantabria)

Isitayela se-Architectural Catalan singu ngokuphelele original futhi okungavamile. Ngokuvamile kufakwe ku- i-modernism kusukela ekuqaleni kwekhulu lama-20, kodwa liyidlula kude. Ngaphezu kwalokho, kufanele sikhulume ngezitayela, hhayi nje eyodwa, ngoba ukudalwa kwayo kwadlula izikhathi ezahlukene.

Kunoma yikuphi, kuyisici esijwayelekile sabo bonke ukuthi ukulingisa imvelo. Ngalokhu, asibhekiseli kuphela ebukhoneni bemihlobiso elingisa uhlaza emisebenzini yakhe, kodwa futhi nokubunjwa kwezinto eziphilayo, ezigobile nezimibalabala ezilingisayo. Ngokufanayo, i- i-geometry kuyisisekelo futhi, ngokunembile, ukusetshenziswa kwe ukuhlobisa okuchichimayo Kungesinye isihluthulelo sesitayela sakhe. Futhi ukukhanya nombala Zibalulekile ezakhiweni zikaGaudi. Dlala ngazo zombili ukuze udale izakhiwo zabo. Futhi, kanye nabo, ukusebenza. Izakhiwo zinezici ezihlukene kuye ngokuthi zizonikezwa kanjani.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, njengoba sikutshelile, bayahlukanisa izigaba ezahlukene emsebenzini kaGaudi. Umuntu owabagqamisa kakhulu kwakungumakhi wezakhiwo Joan Bergos. Ngokusho kwakhe, ngemuva kwesigaba sokuqala sokuhlolwa, ubuhlakani obuvela kuReus badlula ku- isikhathi se-neomudejar ephefumulelwe yilo mnyakazo wenkathi ephakathi futhi lapho isebenzisa i-polychrome ngobuningi. Isibonelo salokhu ngu ICasa Vicens kusuka eBarcelona.

Indlu yeBatlló

Indlu edumile yaseBatlló

Ngemva kwakhe, kuza isigaba se-neogothic, esekelwe kuso isitayela esivelele seNkathi Ephakathi, kodwa isinika izici ezintsha. Isibonelo esihle salokho yi- I-Bellesguard tower. Kodwa-ke, kufanele siveze ukuthi lezi zigaba zomsebenzi kaGaudí ziyedlulana ezikhathini eziningi ngisho izici zomunye nomunye zixubile. Ngalo mqondo, ama-elementi e-Gothic akhona kuzo zonke izigaba zokudala zika-Gaudí.

Kamuva, i-Catalan genius yangena esigabeni se i-expressionist yemvelo I-Baroque iphefumulelwe. Izibonelo zalokhu yilezi Ipaki yaseGuell noma i Indlu yeBatlló, nemihlobiso yayo ewubukhazikhazi. Ekugcineni, kukhona isiteji esingasibiza i-organic synthesisHhayi-ke, njengoba sike sakutshela ngaphambili, ihlanganisa izakhi zazo zonke ezidlule. Isibonelo esihle kakhulu salesi sikhathi ukudalwa kwayo okukhulu: i Sagrada Familia.

Uma sesichaze izici eziyinhloko zemisebenzi ka-Gaudí, manje sesisesimweni sokukhuluma nawe mayelana nokudala kwakhe okuvelele kakhulu ngaphandle kwedolobha lase-Barcelona.

Imisebenzi eyinhloko ka-Gaudí ngaphandle kwe-Barcelona

Izingadi ze-Artigas

Izingadi ze-Artigas, umsebenzi kaGaudí eLa Pobla de Lillet

Umakhi ohlakaniphile waseCatalan wasebenza ngaphandle kwaseBarcelona, ​​​​ikakhulukazi ezifundazweni ezimbili zaseSpain: León futhi Cantabria. Futhi, ngaphakathi kwabo, emadolobheni amathathu: inhloko-dolobha yaseLeón ngokwayo kanye I-Astorga edolobheni lokuqala futhi elihle Izimpawu zokucaphuna kwesibili. Kodwa-ke, njengoba sizobona, naye wakwenza esifundazweni esifanayo saseBarcelona.

Kunoma yikuphi, lezi yizakhiwo ezingenakuphikiswa ngaphakathi kwezitayela ze-Gaudian ukuthi, ngaphandle kokwazi ukuthi ziyimisebenzi yakhe, ngeke kube nzima kuwe ukuzibona zinjalo. Asihambe siyobabona.

Indlu ye-Booties

Indlu ye-Booties

Emuva kwendlu yaseBotines, omunye wemisebenzi kaGaudí ngaphandle kweBarcelona

Enhliziyweni ye León sithola lesi sakhiwo esihle, esaziwa nangokuthi Izindlu zika-Fernandez no-Andrés. Uzoyithola eduze kwesigodlo saseGuzmanes futhi eduze kwePlaza de Santo Domingo, lapho ingxenye endala yedolobha ivula khona ukunwetshwa. Kusukela ngo-1969 kunjalo Isikhumbuzo Somlando Sentshisekelo Yamasiko.

Yakhelwe njengesigodlo, indlu yaseBotines ingeye isikhathi se-neogothic ngu Gaudi. Kodwa, njengoba sinitshelile, wadlulela kwelinye igxathu lapho kuziwa ekulihumusheni. Wakubheka njengokungaphelele futhi walwela ukuthuthukisa lokho ayekubheka njengokungalungile. Ngakho-ke, wasusa ama-buttresses, esikhundleni sazo wafaka izindawo ezilawulwayo futhi wasusa ama-crestings. Ngenxa yalokho, lesi sakhiwo sinemigqa eyenziwe ngesitayela nemibhoshongo emincane yokuhlobisa ekugcineni kwayo.

I-Episcopal Palace yase-Astorga

Isigodlo se-Episcopal

Isigodlo se-Episcopal sase-Astorga

Asisuki esifundazweni sase León ukuthola omunye wemisebenzi ehamba phambili ka-Gaudí ngaphandle kwe-Barcelona. Ngaphezu kwalokho, iphinde ingeye- isigaba se-neo-gothic zomakhi. U-Gaudí wafunda isiCatalan nesiCastilian Gothic ngokujulile ukuze asibambe futhi asichaze kabusha ngezindinganiso zakhe zokwakha.

Kunoma yikuphi, isigodlo se-episcopal siphinde sikhulelwe ngaphandle njenge isigodlo sangeNkathi Ephakathi. Inepulani yesiphambano samaGreki kanye nemibhoshongo eyisilinda emine emakhoneni, kanye nomsele owuzungezile. Umbhoshongo wokungenela ugqame ku-façade eyinhloko, phansi lapho kukhona amakhothamo amathathu avulekile akha ivault esekelwe ama-pendentives. Ngaphezu kwalokho, esitezi sesibili nesesithathu kunamafasitela amaningi ezingilazi ezinemibala futhi inkimbinkimbi iqediwe ngezinsimbi zesitayela se-Mudejar.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, kusukela ngo-1962, lesi sigodlo besihlala Museum of the Roads, okuyinto, njengoba negama layo libonisa, inikezelwe kuyo Umgwaqo kaSantiago. Phakathi kwamaqoqo ayo kukhona izingcezu zemivubukulo ezivela ezikhathini zamaRoma nezenkathi ephakathi. Kodwa futhi inomsebenzi wegolide omangalisayo wenkolo kanye nemidwebo yeRomanesque. Sikweluleka ukuthi uyivakashele. Ngakho-ke, uzokwazi nokubona isigodlo kusuka ngaphakathi, okungaphazamisi ukubukeka kwayo kwangaphandle.

ICapricho yaseGaudí

El capricho

I-Capricho kaGaudí e-Comillas

Manje siya edolobheni laseCantabrian Izimpawu zokucaphuna ukuthola omunye wemisebenzi enelukuluku kakhulu yomdwebi wamaCatalan. Hhayi ngeze, ibizwe ngeCapricho kaGaudí ngenxa yokuma kwayo okungalawuleki. Kulokhu, bekuyikhomishini evela UMaximo Diaz, usbali ka UMarquis waseComillas. Lokhu-ke kwakunguyisezala Eusebio Güell, omunye wabaxhasi abakhulu be-Reus genius.

Ngomqondo ojwayelekile, iCapricho iyingxenye ye i-modernism kusukela ekuqaleni kwekhulu leminyaka elidlule. Kodwa, uma kukhulunywa ngo-Gaudí, umsebenzi awusoze wahlukaniswa ngokucacile ngohlamvu lwawo lwangempela. Eqinisweni, iyaphendula neomudejar, kodwa ngaphezu kwakho konke, amathonya asempumalanga. Ngenxa yalokho, uzobona ukwakhiwa okunamakhothamo e-mitral, isitini esiveziwe esihlanganiswe namathayili e-ceramic kanye nokuqedwa okumise okwedome noma okumise okwethempeli.

UGaudi wayesevele ebambe iqhaza ekwakhiweni kwe- Isigodlo Sobrellano, edolobheni laseComillas ngokwalo. Kulokhu, kwakuyikhomishini evela kuma-marquis okukhulunywe ngawo ngenhla, kodwa umakhi oyinhloko wayenjalo Joan Martorell futhi indoda yethu yazikhawulela emsebenzini womsizi nokuklama ifenisha yangaphakathi. Kunoma yikuphi, ukuyibona kuzokukhumbuza imisebenzi kaGaudí ye-neo-Gothic.

UBodegas Güell, uGaudí usebenza ngaphandle kweBarcelona, ​​​​kodwa esifundazweni

I-Güell Wineries

Izindawo zokuhlala e- Güell

Njengoba sakutshela, Eusebio Güell Wayengomunye wabalandeli bakaGaudí abakhulu futhi wayala imisebenzi yakhe eminingi. Ngokwesibonelo, isigodlo kanye Park Güell, kokubili Barcelona. Ngokusobala, wayefunde ngomsebenzi we-Reus genius lapho evakashele Umbukiso Wendawo Yonke waseParis ka-1878 futhi wayithanda imisebenzi yakhe. Umphumela walokhu wawuzoba ukubambisana okuzohlala ukuphila konke.

Eqinisweni, uphinde wamqasha ukuthi asebenze ngaphandle kweBarcelona, ​​​​yize ngaphakathi esifundazweni. Kuyindaba ye- I-Güell Wineries, etholakala ku- Sitges. Isakhiwo siphinde siphendule ku isigaba se-neo-gothic nguGaudí futhi, cishe ngamamitha ayishumi nanhlanu ukuphakama, inezitezi ezinhlanu. Kodwa-ke, amabili angaphansi komhlaba futhi anikezelwe kuma-wineries ngokwawo. Kodwa enhle kakhulu yilena engenhla, eveza uhlobo oluthile loggia noma kuvulandi-gazebo ngokubukwa kolwandle futhi indlu yesonto embozwe yi-catenary vault.

Ekugcineni, umbhoshongo wensimbi noshimula abaningana ababukeka empumalanga bathwesa umqhele wesakhiwo. Ngaphezu kwalokho, lokhu kuhambisana ne-a inkundla yegoli yesitayela esifanayo kanye nomnyango wensimbi okhanyiweyo olingisa inetha lokudoba.

I-Crypt yaseColonia Güell

Gaudi crypt

I-crypt yaseColonia Güell

Nakulokhu sithola umsebenzi kaGaudí ngaphandle Barcelona, kodwa ngaphakathi esifundazweni sayo. Kulokhu kungaphakathi I-Santa Coloma de Cervello futhi, futhi, kwaba ikhomishini evela kusomabhizinisi Eusebio Güell. Kodwa-ke, kulokhu, umsebenzi womdwebi ohlakaniphile ugxile kuphela i-crypt. Okunye okwakhiwe kwakungozakwabo UJuan Rubio y UFrancesc Berenguer.

Kodwa-ke, naphezu kokuthobeka komsebenzi wayo, i-crypt ye-Colonia Güell inayo ukubaluleka okukhulu emsebenzini kaGaudi. Ngoba ungomunye wemisebenzi yokuqala lapho ngokuhlanganyela ihlanganisa zonke izinhlobo zayo ezintsha zezakhiwo. Isibonelo, ukuhlangana kwesakhiwo nesimo esisizungezile, ama-catenary arch, ukwelashwa okuguquguqukayo nokuwuketshezi kwendawo yangaphakathi noma ukudlala ngokukhanya.

Lokhu kubonakala ngisho ku- izinto ezahlukahlukene ukuthi wasebenzisa. Ngakho, amatshe e-basalt kanye ne-limestone, izitini ze-ceramic, ingilazi, udaka kanye ne-Foundry slag. Futhi konke lokhu kwakha okuphelele okuvumelanayo lapho kungekho khona ukushoda kwemininingwane yokuhlobisa, njengesibonelo, amabhentshi anamadolo.

Ekuphetheni, sikukhombisile okuyinhloko UGaudí usebenza ngaphandle kwaseBarcelona. Kodwa kukhona omunye ofana naye Izindlu e- Catllaras futhi i Can Artigas izingadi, kokubili eLa Pobla de Lillet. Woza uthole yonke le misebenzi yomdwebi omkhulu wamaCatalan.


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