Imvunulo yendabuko yaseRussia

Ezweni lapho isiko livame ukwanda kakhulu emhlabeni, amasiko endabuko ezweni ngalinye bayamelana njengezinhliziyo zabantu. Futhi lapho lelo dolobha lithatha indawo enkulu, amasiko alo kungenzeka acebe, ahluke, ahluke. Kuyindaba ye- ERussia.

Namuhla sizokhuluma ngakho Imvunulo yendabuko yaseRussia. Isudi enemibalabala, enemihlobiso emikhulu futhi ihlala yenziwe ngezandla. Njengefa lamadlozi, le mvunulo iyaqhubeka nokuvela emasontweni, emathiyetha, ezindlini zokudansa, emikhosini.

Imvunulo yendabuko yaseRussia

Imvunulo yendabuko yaseRussia yaqala ukukhula injalo, nemininingwane yayo, kusukela ngekhulu lesi-XNUMX. Akwaziwa ngokuqinisekile ukuthi nini kodwa kulinganiselwa ukuthi kwakungalolo suku noma ikhulu leminyaka ngaphambili.

Kuze kube sekuqaleni kwekhulu le-XNUMX, abalimi kanye abafana (izicukuthwane), babegqoka imvunulo yendabuko, kepha ngo-1700 Tsar Peter Omkhulu waqala ukwethula izinguquko ezithile egqoke yena izingubo eziningi zasentshonalanga. UPedro wayethanda iYurophu, wayithanda, ngakho-ke waqala ukuvimbela ukusetshenziswa kwezingubo zendabuko, okungenani emadolobheni aseRussia.

Ngaleso sikhathi kwakusebenzela abalimi baseRussia ukuthi balondoloze futhi balondoloze ukunotha nobuhle bezingubo zendabuko zaseRussia. Ezinye izingcezu zendabuko azisasetshenziswa namuhla, kepha ezinye zikwazile ukusinda ngokuhamba kwesikhathi, ekugcineni zaba yisithonjana.

Kepha kukhona imvunulo yendabuko engaphezu kweyodwa yendabuko yaseRussia? Kunjalo. Empeleni, singakhuluma ngababili, sarafan neponeva. I-sarafan ifana un i-jumper okuxekethile nokude igqokwa phezu kwehembe elinde lelineni eliboshwe ngebhande. Leli bhande lingelakudala futhi laligqokwa ngaphansi kwesarafan. Le ngubo kukhulunywa ngayo okokuqala ngekhulu leshumi nane futhi yayigqokwa ngabesilisa kuphela, kuphela ngekhulu leshumi nesikhombisa ibonakala njengengubo yowesifazane.

I-sarafan yenziwe ngelineni elicacile noma ukotini oshibhile ophrintiwe eyayikhiqizwa ngobuningi ezimbonini eMoscow nasezifundeni zase-Ivanovo naseVladimir. Le ngubo ende emibalabala enamahlombe avulekile yayigqokwa phezu kwengubo elula ebizwa nge-rubakha.

Uma i-sarafan yayidingeka emcimbini okhethekile, khona-ke ungangeza usilika nama-brocade noma ufekethiswe ngegolide nangesiliva. Ukusetshenziswa kwesarafan kwasakazeka kuzo zonke izifundazwe ezisenyakatho zoMbuso WaseRussia ngaleso sikhathi, eNovgorod, ePskov, eVologda nase-Arkhangelsk.

Kulungile manje I-la poneva uhlobo lwesiketi evame ukusetshenziswa ezifundazweni eziseningizimu yeMoscow njengeVoronezh, Tambov neTula. Impela kunjalo, mdala kune-sarafan. I-poneva yisiketi esisobala noma esinemigqa esiboshwe ngentambo noma esongwe ezinqulwini, sigqokwe ngehembe elixegayo elinemikhono efekethisiwe nephinifa elihlotshiswe kahle ngeminsalo nemihlobiso enemibala.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi sinefayela le- rubakha, ihembe ngokweqile okufana nento eyisisekelo yemvunulo yaseRussia. Yayisetshenziswa yiwo wonke umuntu, abesilisa, abesifazane, abacebile nabampofu. Indwangu-ke ingaba yinhle noma ishibhile, usilika noma ukotini. Kwakuyingubo entofontofo futhi cishe akukho okushintshile kuze kube sekhulwini lama-XNUMX.

I-kokoshnik kwakuyingubo yabesifazane ehlobise ikhanda. Kwakuvamile ngabesifazane ukugqoka imihlobiso yekhanda neyezinwele, futhi kuya ngesimo senhlalo babevunyelwa ukufaka umbukiso waleyo mihlobiso. Abesifazane abashadile kwakudingeka bayimboze ngokuphelele ngale ngubo, kodwa abesifazane abangashadile babekwazi ukuhlobisa ngezimbali nezinye izinto. Le nto yayijwayele ukwenziwa ngezinto ezibizayo futhi ivela izikhathi ezimbalwa kuphela ngonyaka.

Empilweni yansuku zonke kwasetshenziswa izigqoko kuphela noma itshali eliboshiwe elibizwa ngokuthi i-povoyniki. Ijazi loboya libizwa ngokuthi shuba futhi iye yasinda emakhulwini eminyaka, njengoba ithandwa kakhulu ezweni lonke. Yayisetshenziswa ngabesilisa nabesifazane, ngoba khumbula ukuthi iRussia inesimo sezulu esineqhwa. Isikhumba sasivame ukusetshenziswa ohlangothini lwangaphakathi lwengubo kanti ngaphandle kwakukhona eminye imihlobiso. Namuhla ijazi selilula kodwa linenhloso efanayo: ukufudumala.

Igama kaftan Kuyaziwa kangcono ngoba yigama elivela eMiddle East. Kodwa-ke, ungene ngokujulile eRussia futhi cishe uyingxenye yezingubo zabo ezijwayelekile. Ingabe ijazi, icishe ifane nanoma iyiphi ingubo yesimanje, kepha eyiyo yenziwe ngezindwangu ezibizayo futhi ehlotshiswe ngemifekethiso. Njengoba iRussia iyizwe elikhulu, izindwangu ziyahlukahluka kanjalo nokuhlobisa. Kwesinye isikhathi banamaparele afekethisiwe, eningizimu kunezinkinobho noma imihlobiso yoboya.

Kulungile manje Kusukela ngekhulu leshumi nane kuya kweleshumi nesishiyagalombili kunezinguquko ezithile kumvunulo wendabuko waseRussia ngenxa yokuxhumana okuseduze phakathi kweRussia neYurophu. Ake sicabange ukuthi ngaleso sikhathi i-Italy noma iFrance bathumela uboya, usilika ne-velvet nezingubo ezihlotshisiwe zaqala ukubaluleka. Isibonelo, ngesikhathi sika-Ivan the Terrible labo abangena eKremlin kwakudingeka bagqoke imvunulo yesiko njengendlela yokuhlonipha isihlalo sobukhosi noma ngekhulu leshumi nesikhombisa labo "ababengasentshonalanga" kakhulu, ezingutsheni nasezinweleni, bajeziswa.

Ngakho-ke, ngaphandle kwezikhathi nokuhlukile Imfashini yaseNtshonalanga yayinzima ukungena eRussia. Njengoba sishilo ngaphambili, ngemuva UPeter the Great wafika izinto zashintsha esandleni salolu shintsho lwamasiko. Umndeni wasebukhosini uthathe isinyathelo sokuqala ekushintsheni imfashini, wagqoka i- Isitayela saseYurophu, ngaphezulu kwe-French bent, enama-corsets nezigqoko zekhanda eziphakeme abesifazane abaqala ukuzigqoka.

Ngokusobala, abacebile kuphela abakwazi ukukhokhela ushintsho olunjalo kwezemfashini, ngakho-ke ngokushesha kwaba khona lowo mehluko ohlukanisayo phakathi kwalabo ababenamandla ezomnotho futhi bewugqoka ngokuvakashela abaseYurophu nalabo ababengenawo futhi okufanele bahlale nezingubo zesintu. Emadolobheni, eMoscow noma eSt. Petersburg bekubonakala kakhulu.

Ngekhulu le-XNUMX futhi XX isitayela se-rococo sanda, kepha ngekhulu elisha imfashini yenziwa lula bese kuthi izingubo zokunethezeka zaseRussia ezinjengama-sarafans abathandekayo zibuyele eringini. NgeSoviet Union isitayela senziwa lula ngisho nangaphezulu, kepha ngandlela thile emikhosini imvunulo noma imvunulo yendabuko yaseRussia ephethwe ukugcinwa.

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