ISudan uhambo

Sudan kuyizwe lase-Afrika elinamathafa amahle kakhulu. Akuyona indawo yezivakashi ngayinye seKungokokuzithokozisa nabahambi ngaphandle kokwesaba, kepha uma ukuleli qembu ngaphandle kokungabaza iSudan izokuphonsela inselelo.

Ngakho-ke namhlanje sizobona ukuthi iSudan injani nokuthi yini esingayenza kuyo, uma singathola i-visa futhi sidlule kuyo.

Sudan

Afrika liyizwekazi elinothile kangangoba belilokhu lisetshenziswa yimibuso yaseYurophu. Lawa mazwe anezizwe ezihlomile futhi ezihlomile, zihlanganiswe ngamandla abantu abayizitha amakhulu eminyaka, zigqugquzela izimpi zombango, ukubhukuda kombuso kanye nohlu olude lwezinhlekelele olungapheli kahle ezwenikazi lilonke.

Sudan yisibonelo. Ngenkathi amazwe amakoloni ehlukanisa i-Afrika abumba iSudan ngokufaka abantu abangamaSulumane abavela enyakatho nalabo abavela eningizimu, ngokufanayo. Ngakho-ke i- impi yezikhali bekulokhu kungaguquguquki isikhathi eside, ngakho-ke ngo-2011 iSouth Sudan yazimela. Izingxabano zaqhubeka entshonalanga futhi ngonyaka odlule kuphela kwaphela ubushiqela beminyaka eyishumi.

Njengayo yonke i-afrika ISudan inezindawo ezihlukahlukene, kusuka ezintabeni kuya ezinkangala, kudlula izinkulumo. Iphinde ine ebalulekile ukwehluka kwamasiko futhi kufanele kukhunjulwe ukuthi yizwe lemibuso yasendulo. Namuhla Ihlukaniswe izifunda ezinhlanu: isikhungo, iDarfur, empumalanga, iKurdufan nenyakatho.

ICentral Sudan igxilisa amandla ezepolitiki, ezomnotho namasiko ngoba nansi i- inhlokodolobha, iKhartoum. Idolobha kulapho kuhlangana khona iBlue Nile neWhite Nile. Kungumuzi omkhulu owakhiwa inyunyana yamadolobha amathathu ahlukaniswe yiNayile nezingalo zayo zombili. IKhartoum ingesinye sazo, isihlalo sikahulumeni, kanti ingxenye yaso endala ihlala osebeni lweWhite Nile, kanti izindawo ezintsha ziseningizimu.

Ukuvakashela eSudan udinga i-visa, ngakho-ke yebo, kufanele udlule enxebeni noma kwinxusa ukuze ulicubungule. Uma uyithola futhi ungena ezweni ngeKhartoum kodwa uhlela ukudlulela phambili, kuzofanele ubhalise futhi ucubungule imvume ekhethekile, ngokushesha nje lapho ufika. Okusho ukuthi, ezinsukwini ezintathu ezizayo kusukela ufikile kufanele ubhalise emaphoyiseni, futhi ungakwenza ngqo esikhumulweni sezindiza ukuze usisuse.

Ukuze wazi futhi uvakashele enhlokodolobha kufanele usebenzise amatekisi, amabhasi amancane noma amatekisi esithuthuthu. Azikho izikebhe zamatekisi ezixhumanisa amadolobha nezindawo ezakhelene nomfula, kuphela isikebhe esixhumanisa iKhartoum neTuti Island, maphakathi neBlue Nile. Ukuhamba kunzima ngoba kunamadolobha amathathu futhi ngokuhlangene makhulu. Kepha yini oyibonayo enhlokodolobha? Ungahamba Umgwaqo uNile, osebeni lweBlue Nile, elizungezwe izakhiwo zamakoloni, i- UMnyuziyamu Kazwelonke, izihlahla nabantu abaningi abahambahambahamba.

Kufanele futhi uvakashele Imyuziyamu Yesigodlo SikaMongameli waseSudan, ezingadini zeNdlu kaMongameli, i Ukushintshwa Konogada, umkhosi owenzeka ngoLwesihlanu lokuqala lwenyanga ngayinye, ukuhlangana kwamaNiles amabili, ebizwa nge-Al-Mogran, engabonakala ebhulohweni lensimbi futhi ngokusho kwabo bathi ungahlukanisa umehluko wombala phakathi kwalezi zinto zombili (yebo, azikho izithombe ngoba ngubani owaziyo ukuthi kungani kungavunyelwe), kukhona futhi I-Al-Mogran Family Park, imakethe ye USouq Arabi, mkhulu, i- Amathuna e-Commonwealth War, ngamathuna angama-400 aseBrithani ashonela eMkhankasweni WaseMpumalanga Afrika wango-1940-41, yize kukhona nasekhulwini le-XNUMX.

Edolobheni Omdurman kukhona nemakethe enkulu, iCasa del Kalifa, manje eyi-museum kanye ne- Umkhosi womdanso weSufi, ezimibalabala, ezifanelwe ukuthathwa izithombe. Kakade endaweni esenyakatho, eBahri, ungafakaza ngomcimbi wokulwa, iNuba Fight, nemakethe yaseSaad Gishra. Ngaphandle kwalokho ngezikhathi zantambama ungathola itiye kuNile avenue, kunezindlu eziningi zetiye nezindawo zokudlela ezinhle noma ungadla. Ukuba yizwe elinamaSulumane kakhulu ukuthola utshwala kunzima ngakho-ke cishe uzoba umthengisi wezinkukhu ngesikhathi uhlala khona.

Manje, impela awuzange ucabange ngeSudan ukwazi nje inhloko-dolobha yayo. Iqiniso ukuthi impucuko lapha ibineminyaka eyizinkulungwane ubudala futhi bekuyizwe lemibuso eminingi, onamandla kunayo yonke kube ngumbuso waseNapata, emuva ngekhulu lesi-XNUMX BC. Kwabe sekulandela umbuso waseMerowe nombuso wamaNubiya, Christian, ngekhulu lesi-XNUMX AD kanye nemibuso yamaSulumane. Izinsalela zale mibuso zisabonakala nanamuhla futhi kunezindawo eziningi zemivubukulo phakathi kwenyakatho naseningizimu yezwe.

Ake sibone, phakathi kwe- izindawo zokuvakasha lokho iSudan enakho Sai, isiqhingi esiseningizimu ye-cataract yesibili enamathempeli, izikhumbuzo namathuna kusukela ekuqaleni kwe-Stone Age kanye nesikhathi se-Pharaonic, kuze kufike ukufika koMbuso Wase-Ottoman. USadinga Igxila efeni lepharaonic yize kukhona okuthile kombuso weMeroetic neNapatan. Soleb okufanayo. Vuliwe UTumbo Imibhalo eqoshiwe yaseGibhithe itholakale emadwaleni aseduze kolwelwesi lwesithathu.

Enye yezindawo ezibaluleke kakhulu zemivubukulo eSudan yiKarma. Kunezakhiwo ezinkulu lapha futhi yonke into isukela ngekhulu lesithathu BC. UTabo Kuse-Argo Island, eningizimu ye-cataract yesithathu, futhi iqukethe ithempeli laseKushite nezinto zasendulo ezivela ezikhathini zeMeroetic nezobuKristu. IKawa ifana nesibuko saseGibhithe ekwakhiweni kwezakhiwo, nayo Dongola, inhloko-dolobha yoMbuso WobuKristu WamaNubiya, EMayuria, enomosque owawukade uyisonto, izigodlo, amathuna nezindlu ezindala.

Inhlokodolobha yezenkolo yoMbuso waseNapata kwakunguJebel Al - Barka futhi kuseduze nempophoma yesine. Nakhu kukhona izigodlo, amathempeli, imibhoshongo kanye namathuna avela ezikhathini ezahlukene phakathi kwezikhathi zikaFaro, uNapatan nezikhathi zeMeroetic. Isayithi lakwaNuri liqukethe imipiramidi namathuna asebukhosini avela kubukhosi bakwaNapatan. I- Amathuna e-Al-Kuru Badume kakhulu, ngamatshe abo amahle ahlotshiswe ngamakhosi okuqala kaNapatan.

Ngokwakhe i indawo ye-Al - Ghazali Kuse-oasis eBayoudah amakhilomitha ambalwa ukusuka edolobheni laseMerowe futhi iqukethe izinsalela ezivela enkathini yobuKristu. UMerowe uqobo lwayo luyinhloko-dolobha yombuso waseKush ngakho-ke inalo imibhoshongo, amathempeli nezinsalela ngoba kwakungumuzi wangempela. Indawo enhle ongayithwebula isithombe IMusawarat Ephuzi, indawo eyayiyisikhungo senkolo esukela esikhathini seMeroetic futhi ebhalwe amathempeli nesakhiwo esikhulu samatshe amatshe.

Ukuhamba ngokuzimela kulo lonke elaseSudan akulula futhi angazi noma ngabe akunconyiwe yini. Okuhamba phambili ngukuthi ukubhuka uhambo Njengoba ukuvakashela izindawo e-Afrika ezingekho ebalazweni lezivakashi kungaba nzima futhi kulethe izinkinga eziningi kunezixazululo. Yini enye, ISudan ayinayo ingqalasizinda enhle yesihambi esizimele. Noma uqasha ukuvakasha, i-ejensi ingakuphatha okunye kokukutholayo, yenze isicelo sokuthi ithunyelwe kuwe esikhumulweni sezindiza, ngokwesibonelo.

Un uhambo olujwayelekile Kuqala ku Khartoum bese uqhubeka nokuhambela enyakatho, uye ehlane, ubheke Dongola Omdala, maphakathi nenhlokodolobha yaseSudan nomngcele waseGibhithe. Kuyinto inhliziyo yobuKristu eSudan. Akujwayelekile ukuthi le ndawo ingabi nalutho, yize ibaluleke kangaka, ngakho-ke iyamangaza. Uhambo luyaqhubeka ngakusasa ngo Kush, Umhlaba waseNubian phakathi kwezimpophoma zokuqala nezesine zeNayile.Ikomkhulu loMbuso wakudala waseKush lapha ngamanxiwa eKerma, indawo enkulu nenhle yemivubukulo.

Uhambo luyaqhubeka Isigodi saseWawa ukuchitha ubusuku nokuvakashela iThempeli laseSoleb entathakusa, ehamba osebeni lweNayile phakathi kwemithi yesundu, ethatha isikebhe esincane futhi enqamula emasimini ahlwanyelwe ukolweni aze afike ethempelini kusuka lapho ilanga lihlunga khona ngezinsika zalo. Leli thempeli lakhiwa ngufarao Amenotep III, yena lowo owasungula iThempeli laseLuxor, futhi yize linesizotha kakhulu kodwa liselihle futhi licishe libe ngumlingo.

Kukhona futhi Amaphiramidi kaNuri, evakashelwe ngosuku lwesithathu lohambo olujwayelekile, phakathi kwezindunduma, ezakhiwe phakathi kwekhulu lesi-XNUMX nelesi-XNUMX BC, endala kunazo zonke e-Old Nubia. Kulandelwa ngosuku olufanayo ukuvakasha intaba engcwele yaseJebel Barkal, enemibono emangalisayo yeNayile, imibhoshongo yalo namathempeli alo.

Kusukela ngo-2003 kunjalo Amagugu Omhlaba konke kulungile. Ekugcineni, ukuvakasha kuyaqhubeka futhi kusazise i- imibhoshongo yaseMeroe, Izakhiwo ezingama-200 ezingakholakali ezingaphezu kweminyaka engama-2500, indawo enomlingo, ithempeli laseMusawarat yiSufra ngamatshe alo aqoshwe njengezilwane kanye nethempeli laseNaqa ehlane.

Iqiniso ngukuthi njengoba iSudan ingeyona indawo yezivakashi kunemibhalo emincane emayelana nezwe kanye nengcebo yalo, kepha uma ungumuntu othanda ukuhlala yedwa futhi uthanda ukuba wedwa kancane phakathi kwamanxiwa, ongafuni, unganqikazi ukuhlela uhambo olumangalisayo kuleli zwe elimangalisayo futhi elinomlando.

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