Cluj Napoca, me zan gani?

Ciwon Napoca

amsa tambayar Cluj Napoca, me zan gani?, yana nufin magana da ku game da babban birnin tarihi na yankin Transylvania, sananne ga Vlad III da Impaler, wanda ya haifar da halin adabi na Count Dracula. An located, saboda haka, zuwa arewa maso yammacin Romania, a cikin kwarin kogin Somesul Mic.

Saboda ingantaccen tarihin sa, Cluj yana da zurfi bi al'adu wanda Romanian yana da mahimmanci kamar Hungarian. Hakanan, wannan baya ya sanya ta mallaki adadi mai kyau na abubuwan tunawa waɗanda suka haɗa kayan tarihi na ban mamaki. Don duk wannan kuma ba tare da ƙarin jin daɗi ba, za mu amsa muku tambayar Cluj Napoca, me za ku gani?

cocin orthodox

cocin orthodox

Cluj Napoca Orthodox Cathedral

Koyaya, abin tunawa na farko da za mu yi magana da ku kwanan baya ne. Yana da game da Cathedral na Zato, ginin cocin Orthodox mafi mahimmanci a cikin birni. Domin an gina shi a cikin shekaru ashirin na karnin da ya gabata.

Duk da haka, shi amsa ga canons na salon brancovenesque. Tare da wannan suna, wanda yake saboda Constantin Bâncoveanu, wanda ya kasance mai kula da Karamar Hukumar Wallachia, an san shi Renaissance na Romania, wanda ya sami lokacinsa mai girma tsakanin karshen karni na XNUMX zuwa farkon karni na XNUMX. Hakanan ya haɗa da abubuwa na salon Byzantine

Cathedral na Orthodox ya dawo da wannan salon kuma saboda masu gine-gine ne George Cristinel y Constantin Pomponiu. A waje, ya yi fice don bulo da bangon dutse, amma, sama da duka, ga kubba ko kubba, wanda Hagia Sophia ta yi wahayi zuwa gare shi a Istanbul kuma yana goyan bayan ginshiƙai goma sha takwas masu kyau.

A cikin haikalin, a halin yanzu, kuna iya ganin kyawawan zane-zane da aka zana da su Anastase Demian y Catul Bogdan. Za ku sami Cathedral a cikin Avram Iancu Square, wanda za mu sake tattaunawa da ku nan ba da jimawa ba, kusa da gunkin wannan fitaccen dan siyasar nan na gari.

St. Michael's Church

Cocin San Miguel

Babban cocin San Miguel

Ya girmi wanda ya gabata, tunda an gina shi a ƙarni na XNUMX yana bin ƙa'idodin Gothic. Duk da haka, hasumiya na da yawa daga baya, tun da aka gina shi a cikin karni na XNUMX, tare da mutunta salon sauran haikalin. Shi ke nan coci na biyu mafi girma a Transylvania (bayan na Biserica Neagra a Brasov) da kuma babban addinin Katolika a cikin birni.

A waje, ƙofar yamma ta tsaya a waje, inda za ku iya ganin riguna uku na makamai Sigismund na Luxembourg, Sarkin Hungary da Bohemia, da kuma Sarkin Roma Mai Tsarki. Mun riga mun ba ku labarin alakar tarihi na Cluj da Hungary. A gaskiya ma, tana ci gaba da karbar bakuncin al'ummar al'adu mafi girma na wannan ƙasa a duk Romania.

Game da ciki na haikalin, ya kamata ku dubi bagaden, wanda ya fara daga ƙarshen karni na XNUMX; a cikin sacristy na karni na XNUMX; a cikin kyawawan tagogin gilashin ta da kuma a cikin shigar da sashin bututu na karni na XNUMX, aikin Johannes Hahn. Bugu da ƙari kuma, a gabansa akwai gunkin dawaki da aka keɓe Matías Corvino, Sarkin Hungary, Croatia da Bohemia haifaffen birnin.

Dandalin Avram Iancu da sauran fitattun yankunan birnin

Avram Iancu Square

Dandalin Avram Iancu tare da mutum-mutumin wannan dan siyasar Romania a sahun gaba

Kamar yadda muka yi alkawari, za mu koma wannan filin da muka gaya muku game da lokacin da ake magana akan cocin Orthodox. Domin duk wani amsa ga tambaya Cluj Napoca, abin da ya gani? Yana nufin tsayawa cikin nutsuwa a cikinsa. Ba a banza ba, yana da mafi girman adadin abubuwan tunawa a cikin birni. Kusa da haikalin da muka riga muka nuna muku, shine Lucian Blaga National Theatre, wani kyakkyawan gini tare da siffofi neo-baroque da launuka masu fara'a. Masu zanenta su ne masu gine-gine Ferdinand Fellner y Hermann Helmer ne adam wata kuma an gina shi a farkon karni na XNUMX. Koyaya, akwai wasu abubuwan avant-garde a cikin ɗakinta.

Za ku kuma gani a cikin dandalin da harabar kotu, wanda aka gina a ƙarshen karni na XNUMX yana haɗa abubuwa daidai gwargwado tare da salon eclectic. Mahaliccinsa shi ne maginin ginin Gyula Wagner.

Tare da waɗannan gine-gine guda biyu, ana samun wasu fadoji a cikin wannan fili na birane. Tsakanin su, na Lardi, na Kudi, na Orthodox Metropolis da na Caile Ferate Rômane (Kamfanin Railway na Romania). A daya hannun, a cikin Titin Iuliu Maniu, wanda shine mafi mahimmanci a cikin Cluj kuma yana haɗa filin Avram Iancu tare da filin Unirii (inda cocin Saint Michael yake), kuna da mahimman saiti na eclectic style gine-gine.

Lambun Botanical da sauran wuraren kore

Lambun Botanical

Cluj Napoca Botanical Garden

Lambun Botanical na Alexandru Borza yanki ne na kadada goma sha hudu wanda masani da masani suka kirkira a cikin 1872. Samuel Brassai. A halin yanzu, ana gudanar da shi ta hanyar Babes-Bolyai University, wanda kuma ya zama cibiyar nazari. Komai game da shi yana da ban sha'awa, kamar yadda yake da kimanin nau'in shuka dubu goma daga ko'ina cikin duniya.

Duk da haka, wasu daga cikin manyan abubuwan jan hankali su ne Lambun Japan, wanda ya haɗa da gidan gargajiya na Japan, da kuma lambun roman, wanda, bi da bi, yana da ragowar kayan tarihi da yawa daga na farko napoca. Haka nan, wuraren zama na greenhouse tare da tsire-tsire masu tsire-tsire masu ban sha'awa; nasa Gidan kayan tarihi na Botanical, tare da kusan guda dubu bakwai; herbarium da cibiyar, inda daliban jami'a ke binciken ilmin halitta da ilimin kasa.

Kusa da wannan lambun, ɗayan babban filin kore don gani a cikin Cluj Napoca shine Yankin Tsakiya. An ƙirƙira shi a cikin ƙarni na XNUMX, shine mafi mahimmanci a cikin biranen birni. Har ila yau, an ƙawata shi da babban saiti na al'ada mutummutumai kuma ya haɗa da ginin ban mamaki na tsohon gidan caca.

Gidajen tarihi na Cluj Napoca

Banffy Palace

Fadar Bánffy, hedkwatar National Museum of Art

Ci gaba da nunin mu don amsa tambayar Cluj Napoca, menene zamu gani?, Yanzu mun zo ga kayan tarihi na birni. Kuma gaskiyar ita ce yawan su yana da ban mamaki. Daidai a cikin gidan kayan gargajiya square kuna da Tarihin ƙasa na Transylvania, wanda aka buɗe a tsakiyar karni na XNUMX. A ciki, zaku iya ganin ƙayyadaddun nune-nunen nune-nune daga lokuta masu kama da Prehistory zuwa Tsakiyar Tsakiya, da kuma nune-nunen na wucin gadi.

Amma, sama da duka, tarin tarin abubuwan da ke cikin Al'adun Wietenberg, mataki na ado na zamanin Bronze a cikin Carpathians wanda ke ɗaukar sunansa, daidai, daga rukunin yanar gizon da ke cikin Transylvania. Bugu da ƙari, kusa da wannan fili kuna da a cocin franciscan Salon Baroque da wurin haifuwar abubuwan da aka ambata Matías Corvino, Gothic style kuma kuma ya zama gidan kayan gargajiya. Haka kuma, shi ne na hali yankin na sanduna da kuma gidajen cin abinci a cikin birnin. Amma ko da mafi m shi ne Gidan kayan gargajiya na kantin magani, wanda yake a cikin Dandalin Unirii, wanda yake inda kantin magani na farko na garin yake, an buɗe shi a shekara ta 1573. Har ma kuna iya ganin nishaɗin abin da yake dakin gwaje-gwajensa. Duk da haka, yana da mahimmanci Gidan Tarihi na Kasa.

Wannan yana cikin Giörgy Bánffy, wanda shine mafi mahimmancin ginin baroque a Cluj. An ƙirƙira shi a tsakiyar karni na XNUMX kuma ya ƙunshi tarin manyan masu fasaha na Romania. Misali, na masu fenti Nicolae Grigorescu y Stefan Luchian, da kuma mai sassaka Dimitrie Paciurea. Amma kuma yana da ayyukan marubutan Hungary kamar su József Koszta o István Réti. Kuma, sama da duka, daga manyan masu kirkirar Turai irin su Baroque Luke Giordano y Carlo Dolci ko kuma romantic Louis Barye. Duk da haka, mafi mahimmancin tarinsa shine mai zane-zane, wanda ya haɗa da ayyukan mafi kyawun masu fasaha na wannan horo tsakanin ƙarni na XNUMXth da XNUMXth. Tsakanin su, Salvatore Rosa, Giovanni Piranesi u Girmama Daumier.

A ƙarshe, za mu gaya muku game da Gidan Tarihi, wanda ke da hedkwata guda biyu. Ɗaya daga cikinsu shi ne ginin da ke kusa da dandalin Unirii, inda ake baje kolin abubuwa da yawa na zamanin da, kamar kayan aiki, makamai da kayan wasan yara. Amma na biyun, yana wajen birnin, a sararin sama. Ya ƙunshi da yawa gidajen gargajiya daga karni na XNUMX zuwa na XNUMX da aka sake ginawa.

Sauran abubuwan tunawa na Cluj Napoca

Titin Iuliu Maniu

Titin Iuliu Maniu da aka gani daga Unirii Square

Akwai sauran abubuwan sha'awa a cikin garin Romania wanda dole ne mu gaya muku game da idan muna son amsa tambayar Cluj Napoca, menene zamu gani? gaba daya. Don haka, da Tailors Bastion Ita ce hasumiyar tsaro tilo da ta rage daga tsohuwar katangar karni na XNUMX. A gaskiya ma, an rushe shi kuma an sake gina shi sau da yawa, na karshe a farkon karni na XNUMX. Hakanan yana dauke da karamin gidan kayan tarihi.

Kusa ne gyara coci, kafin wanda ya tsaya a mutum-mutumi na Saint George. An gina shi tsakanin ƙarni na XNUMXth da XNUMXth kuma yana amsa ga canons na cocin kagara da salon Gothic. A ciki, kuma yana kiyayewa mafi girma tarin riguna na makamai na Transylvania. Kada ku dame shi da wani coci da ake kira iri ɗaya, amma wanda shine neoclassical daga karni na XNUMX.

Kuma, daidai, idan kuna son ganin ragowar abubuwan tsohon kagara, dole ne ku hau zuwa Dutsen Cetatuia, daga inda kuke da ra'ayi na ban mamaki game da birnin da kuma inda akwai wani abin tunawa da ke ba da girmamawa ga waɗanda suka fadi a yakin duniya na 1914-1918. Hakanan, bai kamata ku rikita shi tare da Kagara gina a cikin karni na XNUMX. Kagara ce da ke da gine-gine da yawa, kofofi uku da ginshiƙai a cikin sasanninta.

A ƙarshe, mun amsa tambayar Cluj Napoca, me zan gani? yana nuna muku manyan abubuwan tarihi na wannan kyakkyawan birni na Romania. Ya rage a gare mu mu gaya muku cewa, idan kun ziyarce ta, za ku kuma ziyarci wasu kyawawan garuruwa masu kyau da tarihi a cikin Transylvania kamar su. Bisrite o Sigisoara. Ku zo ku gano wannan kyakkyawan yanki na Tsohuwar Nahiyar.


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