Kogin Suez

Akwai tashoshi na wucin gadi waɗanda ɗan adam ya gina duniya kuma waɗanda suka shahara a duniya. Daya daga cikinsu shine Suez Canal. A cikin labarinmu na yau zamu maida hankali ne kan na biyu, tashar african wanda ya canza tarihin kasuwancin yankin da duniya baki ɗaya.

Kogin Suez ya haɗu da Bahar Rum da Bahar Maliya kuma galibi ana ganin shi a matsayin iyakar tsakanin Asiya da Afirka. Labarin yadda aka hango shi kuma aka gina shi ba tare da jayayya da rigimar siyasa ba, amma ƙwarewar ɗan adam ta ƙare da nasara.

Kogin Suez

Wannan canjin na wucin gadi, magudanar ruwa a matakin teku, an gina shi a tsakiyar karni na XNUMX don buɗe hanya kai tsaye tsakanin Arewacin Atlantika da Tekun Indiya ta Bahar Rum da Bahar Maliya, guje wa kewaya kewaye da Tekun Atlantika da kuma kudancin Tekun Indiya, don haka rage lokacin tafiya da dubban kilomita.

Tashar Ana farawa daga Port Said kuma ya ƙare a Port Tewfik a cikin garin Suez. Tafiya kadan fiye da Kilomita dubu 193 kuma tana da hanyoyin shiga arewa da kudu. Tsarin farko ya kunshi hanyar ruwa guda ɗaya, ba tare da ƙofofi ba, tare da ruwan teku da wuraren wucewa a Ballah da Babban Lake Bittler.

A cikin karni na XNUMX manyan daulolin Turai har yanzu suna da karfi a Afirka, don haka Ingila da Faransa sune suka mallake suSun kasance shekaru da yawa, har zuwa bayan yakin na biyu, yayin aiwatar da mulkin mallaka, shugaban kasar Masar a wancan lokacin, Nasser, ya yanke shawarar sanya shi ƙasa. Babu shakka, ba zai iya yin hakan ba tare da rikici ba, amma daga ƙarshe an yi shi.

Tun daga wannan lokacin, tare da sanya hannu a kan wata yarjejeniya, an yanke shawarar cewa za a yi amfani da mashigar koyaushe, a lokacin zaman lafiya da yaƙi, ta kowane jirgi kowane iri, ba tare da banbanta tuta ba. Idan ka ga taswirar Afirka, tabbas za ka fahimci muhimmancin tashar don tashe-tashen hankula a yankin.

Bayan 'yan shekarun da suka gabata, A cikin 2014, Masar ta fara aikin fadada hanyar Ballah a cikin kilomita 35 don kewayawa cikin sauri kuma wataƙila ma don ninka damar tashar a cikin yawan jirgi da zai iya wucewa kowace rana. An samu nasara kuma an ƙaddamar da ayyukan shekara guda daga baya. Menene ƙari, A cikin 2016, an buɗe sabon tashar tashar.

Amma shin wannan ne karo na farko da mutane suka gina wani abu makamancin wannan? A'a. Da alama tun farkon Masarautar ne da nufin sauƙaƙa zirga-zirga daga Kogin Nilu zuwa Bahar Maliya. Don haka, an yi imanin cewa sun gina ƙaramar hanya, wataƙila a lokacin Ramses II kuma daga baya ta Darius, sarkin Fasiya.

Ottoman sun kuma yi la'akari da shi, a cikin ƙarni na XNUMX, tuni suna son haɗa Bahar Rum da Bahar Maliya, tare da sha'awar haɗa Constantinople da hanyoyin kasuwanci da aikin hajji.

Koyaya, yayi tsada sosai, saboda haka ba yawa daga cikin takardu ba. A lokacin kamfen din Faransa a Masar zuwa Napolén Yana da sha'awar ragowar tsohuwar hanyar ruwa sannan masu zane-zanen Faransa da masu binciken kayan tarihi suna yawo ko'ina cikin ƙasar. Kasancewa sarki ya nuna ƙarin sha'awar gina magudanar ruwa amma gina ƙofofin sun sa ayyukan sun yi tsada kuma sun ɗauki lokaci mai tsawo, don haka a ƙarshe aka watsar da ra'ayin.

I mana, ra'ayin ya zo kuma ya tafi daga tunanin mutane da yawa ta hanyar lokaci har sai ya tabbata. A ƙarshe, abubuwa sun zama masu mahimmanci kuma an yanke shawarar gina shi. Shin Kamfanin Suez Canal Company ne ya dauki nauyinsa, hadaddiyar kungiyar kamfanoni da dama da ke Paris. A farko, kashi 52% na hannun jarin suna hannun Faransa kuma 44% a hannun Misira, amma daga baya wannan ƙasar ta sayar da su ga Unitedasar Ingila.

Tashar aka gina akan Suez Isthmus, gadar ƙasa tsakanin Afirka da Asiya wanda ta fannin ilimin ƙasa ba da dadewa ba. Sanannen abu ne cewa kafin nahiyoyin biyu su kasance dunkulalliya kuma tsakanin shekaru 66 zuwa miliyan 2.6 da suka gabata wani babban kuskure ya haifar da raba su. Ba daidaitaccen yanki bane, yana da damuwa guda uku masu cike da ruwa waɗanda sune Tafkin Manzala, da lake timsah da kuma Lakes masu zafi.

Tsibirin yana da tarkacen ruwa, yashi da tsakuwa waɗanda aka ajiye a lokacin ruwan sama mai ƙarfi ko Kogin Nilu ya isa ko yashi mai yawo na hamada ya kawo. Anan aka yanke shawarar gina kanal, ayyukan da suka gudana tsakanin 1859 da 1869. Shekaru goma na rami tare da ma'aikatan da suka yi aiki da tilas, da yawa daga cikinsu sun mutu.

Ba wani aiki bane wanda a farko ya tayar da fata da yawa kuma ya rikitar da sayarwar hannun jari. Amma hannu da hannu tare da dangin Rothchild, shahararrun ma'aikatan banki, hannun jari aƙalla a Faransa ya ƙare da sayarwa kamar waina mai zafi. A halin yanzu, Burtaniya ta kasance mai nuna shakku da sukar yadda ake amfani da bayi.

A ƙarshe, an buɗe mashigar Suez a cikin Nuwamba 1869 tare da wani biki a Port Said wanda ya hada da wasan wuta, liyafa da masu fada aji. Kamar yadda ake tsammani A farkon zamanin tashar tana da wasu matsalolin fasaha da na kuɗi tunda kudin sun dan tashi sama kadan. Hakanan, zirga-zirgar kawai ya fara girma shekaru biyu bayan haka don haka a wancan lokacin rashin tabbas ya ci gaba.

Amma bayan duk matsaloli da hasashe gaskiyar ita ce mashigar Suez tana da matukar mahimmanci a cikin alaƙar tsakanin ƙasashe. A waccan lokacin, tashar ta kasance hanya guda daya mai zurfin zurfin mita 8 da fadin mita 22 a kasa kuma tsakanin mita 61 zuwa 912 a fadi. Don ba da izinin wucewar jiragen daga kowane gefe, an gina jiragen ruwa kowane kilomita takwas zuwa goma.

Ya yi karami ƙwarai don haka a wajajen 1876 suka fara sababbin ayyuka don fadada shi da zurfi. Zuwa shekarun 60, tashar tana da mafi karancin nisa na mita 55 a ƙasan kuma mita 10 a bankunan, da zurfin mita 12 a ƙananan igiyar ruwa. Hakanan an kara fadada wuraren wucewa kuma an gina wasu a cikin tabkunan, tare da kankare da sifofin karfe don hana yashwa.

Shirye-shiryen baya sun rikice da yakin Larabawa da Isra'ila na 1967, kwanakin da aka toshe mashigar duk da yarjejeniyar da aka sanyawa tuntuni. Kogin Suez ya kasance ba ya aiki har zuwa 1975 kuma kamar yadda muka fada a baya, a shekarar 2015 Masar ta kammala ragowar ragowar don fadada karfin ta: Kilo 29 ya fi na farkonsa 164.

Don gamawa na bar muku wasu bayanai:

  • A cikin 1870, jirgi 486 sun wuce, ƙasa da biyu a rana.
  • A cikin 1966, kimanin jiragen ruwa 21.250 suka wuce, kimanin 58 a kowace rana.
  • A 2018, jirgi 18.174 suka wuce.
  • Tashar asali ba ta hanyar hanya biyu bace don haka dole jiragen ruwa su tsaya su tafi, tafi, kuma su tsaya. Sannan ya ɗauki kimanin awanni 40 kafin a wuce, amma zuwa 1939 wannan lokacin ya rage zuwa awa 13. A ƙarshen 40s, an aiwatar da jerin gwanon kuma a cikin 70s lokaci ya riga ya kasance tsakanin awanni 11 da 16,
  • Yanayin kaya ya canza da yawa kuma musamman a ƙarni na XNUMX mai da ɗanyen mai sarki ne. Coal, karafa, itace, iri da hatsi, siminti, takin mai magani ana kara su.
  • Kodayake jiragen ruwa na fasinja koyaushe suna wucewa tun daga 40s, lambar ba ta da yawa saboda gasar daga jiragen sama.
  • A yau zaku iya yin balaguro daga Alkahira ko Port Said, ta hanyar jirgin ruwa.
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