Huakaʻi ʻo Sudan

Sudan he ʻāina ʻApelika ia o nā kahakai kupaianaha. ʻAʻole ia kahi huakaʻi no kēlā me kēiaʻOi aku ia no nā mea hoʻolaha a me nā huakaʻi me ka makaʻu ʻole, akā inā ʻoe i loko o kēia hui me ke kānalua ʻole e hoʻokūkū ʻo Sudan iā ʻoe.

No laila i kēia lā e ʻike ana kāua He aha ke ʻano o Sudan a he aha ka mea e hiki iā mākou ke hana i loko, inā hiki iā mākou ke kiʻi i ka visa a hele i loko.

Sudan

ʻApelika He ʻāina waiwai ʻo ia i hoʻohana mau ʻia e nā mana ʻEulopa. ʻO kēia mau ʻāina he mea kaua a kaua hoʻi nā lāhui, i hui pū ʻia e ka poʻe ʻenemi ikaika no nā kenekulia, paipai i nā kaua kīwila, nā hoʻokahuli aupuni a me ka papa inoa lōʻihi o nā pōpilikia i pau ʻole maikaʻi no ka pae ʻāina āpau.

Sudan he laʻana. I ka wā i hoʻokaʻawale ai nā ʻāina kolone i ʻApelika, hana lākou i Sudan e ka hoʻopili ʻana i nā heluna Muslim ma ka ʻākau me nā mea ma ka hema, like iki. No laila ka kaua kīwila noho mau no ka manawa lōʻihi, no laila ma 2011 ua kūʻokoʻa ʻo Sudan Hema. Ua hoʻomau ʻia nā hakakā ma ke komohana a ʻo ka makahiki i hala wale aku nei i pau i kahi dictatorhip he ʻumi mau makahiki.

E like me nā ʻApelika āpau He mau ʻāina ʻokoʻa kā Sudan, mai nā kuahiwi a hiki i nā sabana, e hele ana i nā haʻi'ōlelo. He mea nui pū kekahi ʻokoʻa moʻomeheu a e hoʻomanaʻo ʻia ʻo ia ka ʻāina o nā aupuni kahiko. I kēia lā Ua mahele ʻia i ʻelima mau ʻāina: ke kikowaena, Darfur, ka hikina, Kurdufan a me ka ʻākau.

Hoʻonohonoho ka Central Sudan i ka mana politika, hoʻokele a me ka moʻomeheu ʻoiai eia ka kapikala, Khartoum. ʻO ke kūlanakauhale kahi e hui ai ka Nile Blue a me ka Nile Keʻokeʻo. He kulanakauhale nui ia i hanaia e ka hui ana o na kulanakauhale ekolu i puunaueia e ka Nile a me kona mau lima. ʻO Khartoum kekahi o lākou, ka noho o ke aupuni, a ʻo kāna ʻāpana mua loa e kau ana ma kapa o ka Nile Keʻokeʻo, ʻoiai aia nā kaiāulu hou ma ka hema.

No ke kipa iā Sudan pono ʻoe i kahi visa, no laila ʻae, pono ʻoe e hele ma waena o ke consulate a i ʻole ka ʻemepela e hana ai. Inā loaʻa iā ʻoe a komo i ka ʻāina ma o Khartoum akā hoʻolālā e hele i mua, pono ʻoe e hoʻopaʻa inoa a hana i kahi palapala kūikawā ke hiki mai ʻoe. ʻO ia, i loko o nā lā ʻekolu e hiki mai ana mai kou hōʻea ʻana pono ʻoe e hoʻopaʻa inoa me nā mākaʻi, a hiki iā ʻoe ke hana pololei i ke kahua mokulele e kāpae iā ia.

E ʻike a kipa aku i ke kapitala pono ʻoe e hoʻohana i nā kaʻa pahi, minibus a i ʻole nā ​​kaʻa mokokaikala. ʻAʻohe moku waʻa e hoʻohui i nā kūlanakauhale a me ko lākou mau kaiāulu ma ka muliwai, kahi mokuahi wale nō e hoʻopili iā Khartoum me Tuti Island, ma waenakonu o ka Blue Nile. He paʻakikī ka hele wāwae no ka mea aia ʻekolu kūlanakauhale a hui pū lākou he nui. Akā he aha kāu e ʻike ai ma ke kapitala? Hiki iā ʻoe ke hele wāwae i ka Alanui Nile, ma ke kapa o ka Nile Blue, i hoʻopuni ʻia e nā hale kolone, ka Hale Hōʻikeʻike National, lāʻau a me ka nui o ka poʻe e hele wāwae ana.

Pono ʻoe e kipa i ka Hale Hōʻikeʻike ʻo Pelekikena Sudan, i nā māla o ka Hale Pelekikena, ka Ka Hoʻololi ʻana o ke Kiaʻi, kahi hanana i mālama ʻia ma ka Pōʻalima mua o kēlā me kēia mahina, ka hui o nā Nile ʻelua, i kapa ʻia ʻo Al-Mogran, hiki ke ʻike ʻia mai ke alahaka hao a e like me ka mea a lākou e ʻōlelo ai hiki iā ʻoe ke hoʻokaʻawale i ka ʻokoʻa o ke kala ma waena o nā mea ʻelua (ʻae, ʻaʻohe kiʻi no ka mea ʻo wai ka mea ʻike i ke kumu e pāpā ʻia ai), aia kekahi Pāka ʻohana Al-Mogran, ka mākeke o ʻO Souq Arabi, nunui, ka ʻO ka hale kupapaʻu o Commonwealth War, me 400 mau ilina o Beritania i make i ka East Africa Campaign o 1940-41, ʻoiai aia kekahi mai ka XNUMX kenekulia.

I ke kūlanakauhale o ʻO Omdurman aia kekahi mākeke nui, ka Casa del Kalifa, i kēia manawa kahi hale hōʻikeʻike a me ka Hula hula Sufi, hōʻike, pono kūpono ke paʻi kiʻi ʻia. Ma ka ʻĀkau ʻĀkau, Bahri, hiki iā ʻoe ke ʻike i kahi hanana hakakā, ka Nuba Fight, a me ka mākeke ʻo Saad Gishra. Inā ʻaʻole i ke awakea awakea hiki iā ʻoe ke inu ti ma ke alanui Nile, nui nā hale tī a me nā cafe a ʻai paha i waho. ʻO ka ʻāina Muslim ka hapanui paʻakikī ka loaʻa ʻana o ka wai ʻona no laila e lilo ʻoe i mea lawelawe kīʻī ma kou noho ʻana.

I kēia manawa, ʻoiai ʻaʻole ʻoe i noʻonoʻo iā Sudan e ʻike wale i kona kapikala. ʻO ka ʻoiaʻiʻo o ka lāhui ma aneʻi he mau makahiki he mau makahiki a lilo ia i ʻāina o nā aupuni he nui, ʻo ka mea nui loa ʻo ia ke Aupuni Napata, i hoʻi mai i ka kenekulia XNUMX BC. A laila ua ukali i ke aupuni Merowe a me ke aupuni Nubian, Karistiano, i ka XNUMX kenekulia AD a me nā aupuni Islam. ʻO nā relics o kēia mau aupuni ke ʻike ʻia nei i kēia lā a he nui nā pūnaewele archaeological ma waena o ka ʻākau a me ka hema o ka ʻāina.

E nānā kāua, ma waena o ka nā wahi huakaʻi huakaʻi he aha kā Sudan Sai, kahi mokupuni ma ka hema o ka lua o ka cataract me nā luakini, nā kia hoʻomanaʻo a me nā hale kupapaʻu mai ka wā kahiko o Pōhaku a me ka wā ʻo Paraʻo pū kekahi, a hiki i ka hōʻea ʻana o ka Ottoman Empire. Sadinga hoʻokumu ia i ka hoʻoilina pharaonic ʻoiai aia kekahi mea o nā aupuni Meroetic a me Napatan. Soleb ka mea like. Ma Tumbus Ua loaʻa nā kākau ʻAigupita ma nā pōhaku kokoke i ka cataract kolu.

ʻO kekahi o nā pūnaewele archaeological koʻikoʻi ma Sudan ʻo Karma. Nui nā hale ma aneʻi a hoʻi nā mea āpau i ke kenekulia ʻekolu BC. Kahului Aia ia ma ka mokupuni ʻo Argo, ma ka hema o ka cataract kolu, a loaʻa kahi luakini Kushite a me nā wā kahiko mai ka wā Meroetic a me ka Karistiano. Ua like ʻo Kawa me ke aniani o ʻAigupita i ka hoʻolālā, ʻo ia kekahi Dongola, ke kapikala o ke Aupuni Nubian Christian, Mayuria, me kahi mosque i lilo i hale pule ma mua, nā hale aliʻi, nā hale kupapaʻu a me nā hale kahiko.

ʻO ke kapikala haipule o ke Aupuni ʻo Napata ʻo Jebel Al - Barka a kokoke ia i ka wailele hā. Eia ma aneʻi nā hale aliʻi, nā luakini, nā pyramid a me nā ilina mai nā wā like ʻole ma waena o nā wā ʻo Paraona, Napatan a me Meroetic. Aia i ka pūnaewele Nuri nā pyramids a me nā hale kanu aliʻi mai ka moʻokūʻauhau Napatan. ʻO ka Nā ilina ʻo Al-Kuru Kaulana loa lākou, me kā lākou mau pōhaku hoʻonani e pili ana i nā mōʻī Napatan mua.

No kāna ʻāpana ka kahua o Al - Ghazali Aia ia ma kahi oasis ma Bayoudah i kekahi mau mile mai ke kūlanakauhale ʻo Merowe a loaʻa nā relics mai ka wā Kalikiano. Merowe ʻo ia ke kapikala o ke aupuni Kush no laila nā pyramids, nā luakini a me nā relics ʻoiai he kūlanakauhale maoli nō ia. He wahi nani e paʻi kiʻi ai Yellow Musawarat, kahi i lilo i kikowaena haipule e pili ana i ka wā Meroetic a ua kahakaha ʻia nā luakini a me kahi hale ʻohana lime nui.

ʻAʻole maʻalahi ka neʻe kūʻokoʻa ʻana ma waena o Sudan A ʻaʻole maopopo iaʻu inā ʻaʻole ia e koi ʻia. ʻO ka ʻoi loa ka puke huakaʻi ʻOiai ke kipa ʻana i nā wahi ma ʻApelika ʻaʻole ma ka palapala ʻāina mākaʻikaʻi hiki ke paʻakikī a lawe i nā pilikia hou aʻe ma mua o nā hopena. He aha hou aʻe, ʻAʻohe o Sudan i kahi ʻoihana maikaʻi no ka mea hele kaʻawale. ʻOiai inā ʻoe e hoʻolimalima i kahi huakaʻi, hiki i ka ʻoihana ke mālama i kekahi o nā isa iā ʻoe, e noi i ka hāʻawi ʻana iā ia iā ʻoe ma ke kahua mokulele.

Un huakaʻi huakaʻi E hoʻomaka i Khartoum a laila hoʻomau i ka huakaʻi ʻākau, i ka wao nahele, i ka ʻO Dongola Kahiko, hapa ma waena o ke kapikala Sudan a me ka palena ʻo ʻAigupita. ʻO ia ka puʻuwai o ka hoʻomana Kalikiano ma Sudan. ʻAʻole ia he mea maʻamau ʻole ka hakahaka o kēia wahi, ʻoiai he mea nui ia, no laila he mea weliweli ia. Hoʻomau ka huakaʻi i kekahi lā aʻe ma Kush, ʻO ka ʻāina Nubian ma waena o nā wailele mua a ʻehā o ka Nile. Ke keʻena nui o ke aupuni kahiko o Kush eia nā wahi neoneo o Kerma, kahi kahua nui a nani hoʻi o ka archaeological.

Hoʻomau ka huakaʻi Wawa kauhale e moe i ka pō a kipa aku i ka Luakini o Soleb i ka wanaʻao, e hele wāwae ana ma kapa o ka Nile ma waena o nā lāʻau pāma, e lawe ana i kahi moku liʻiliʻi a hele i waena o nā māla i lūlū ʻia me ka palaoa a hiki i ka luakini mai kahi e kānana ai ka lā ma o kāna mau kolamu. Ua kūkulu ʻia kēia luakini e ka pharaoh Amenotep III, ka mea like nāna i hoʻokumu i ka Luakini o Luxor, a ʻoiai ʻoi aku ka haʻahaʻa he nani a aneane kupua hoʻi ia.

Aia kekahi Nā Pyramids o Nuri, kipa ʻia i ke kolu o ka lā o ka huakaʻi maʻamau, ma waena o nā puʻu, i kūkulu ʻia ma waena o ka makahiki XNUMX a me XNUMX mau kenekulia BC, ka mea kahiko ma Nubia Kahiko. Hahai ʻia ma ka lā like e ke kipa mauna laʻa ʻo Jebel Barkal, me nā manaʻo kupaianaha o ka Nile, kona mau pyramids a me nā luakini.

Mai ka 2003 ʻo ia Hoʻoilina honua me ka pono. ʻO ka hope, hoʻomau ka huakaʻi a hōʻike iā mākou i ka nā pyramids o Meroe, 200 mau hanana kupaianaha i ʻoi aku ma mua o 2500 mau makahiki, kahi kilokilo, ʻo ka luakini o Musawarat ʻo Sufra me kāna mau pōhaku i kālai ʻia e like me nā holoholona a me ka Luakini Naqa i ka wao akua.

ʻO ka ʻoiaʻiʻo ʻoiai ʻaʻole ʻo Sudan kahi huakaʻi huakaʻi he mea liʻiliʻi e pili ana i ka ʻāina a me kāna mau waiwai, akā inā he adventurous ʻoe a makemake ʻoe e noho kaʻawale i waena o nā wahi neoneo, ka mea ʻaʻole, mai hoʻokaʻulua e hoʻonohonoho i kahi huakaʻi kupaianaha. i kēia ʻāina kupaianaha a mōʻaukala.

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