San Miguel de Escalada

ʻO San Miguel de Escalada kekahi o nā mea nui nā kia hoʻomanaʻo mua-romanesque mai ka panalāʻau o León. He hale mōneka ia i hoʻolaʻa ʻia ma 913 e hoʻokipa i nā mōneka mai Cordoba, akā i kēia manawa wale nō ka hale pule a me kekahi mau mea hilinaʻi ʻē aʻe.

Aia ia ma ke kulanakauhale o Papahelu, ma kahi o iwakāluakūmāhiku kilomita mai ke kapikala ʻo León a ma ka Ke ala o Santiago. Ua kūkulu ʻia ka hale mōneka ma kahi hale pule kahiko ʻo Visigoth i hoʻolaʻa ʻia, no San Miguel. Inā makemake ʻoe e ʻike hou aʻe e pili ana i kēia momi o ka pre-Romanesque, kono mākou iā ʻoe e hoʻomau i ka heluhelu ʻana.

Mōʻaukala o San Miguel de Escalada

I ka makahiki 912, ua hōʻea kahi hui o nā mōneka i alakaʻi ʻia e Abbot Alfonso i kēia wahi o León. Hoʻoholo e noho ma laila, kūkulu lākou i hoʻokahi monastery wale nō, i 913, e hoʻolaʻa ʻia e ka pīhopa Saint Genadius o Astorga.

No kāna kūkulu ʻana, ua hoʻohana lākou i nā pono mai ka hana Visigothic kahiko e kamaʻilio nei mākou. ʻIke mau ʻia kēia ma kekahi o kona mau paia, kahi e hiki ai iā ʻoe ke ʻike i kahi palapala mai ka luakini kumu. No kāna ʻāpana, ua noho ka mōneka i kona manawa nani loa i ka kenekulia XNUMX, a ma ia manawa ua hoʻohui ʻia kekahi mau mea kūkulu hou.

Aia i ka XIX, me ka Confiscation i hoʻokumu ʻia e Mendizábal o ka hale pule ʻekalesia, ua haʻalele ʻia ʻo San Miguel de la Escalada. Eia nō naʻe, ua hana ia i kekahi mau hoʻihoʻi ʻana a i ka makahiki 1886, ua hoʻolaha ʻia Kahua hoʻomanaʻo National.

Hale hōʻikeʻike Porticoed

ʻO Portico o San Miguel de Escalada

Nā hiʻohiʻona o San Miguel de Escalada

E like me kā mākou i ʻōlelo ai, pane kēia hana i nā ʻano o ka hana kiʻi mua promanesque. ʻO ia, i ka mea a lākou e hōʻike ai Santa Maria del Naranco o San Miguel de Lillo i Oviedo. 'Speakinglelo laulā, hoʻohui ia i nā mea Visigoth me nā mea Mozarabic ʻē aʻe.

Eia naʻe, makemake ka poʻe loea o kēia manawa e kāhea iā ia hana hoʻāʻo hou. ʻO ke kumu, e like me kāu i kuhi aku ai, ua kūkulu ʻia e nā Kristiano e noho ana i nā ʻāina Castile i haʻalele ʻia e ka poʻe Mahometa e noho hou iā lākou. Akā, ʻoiai e hoʻokele mau kēia mau wahi palena i nā pilina, ua ikaika nō hoʻi kēia kaila kumumanaʻo mozarabic, ʻo ia hoʻi, pili like i ka poʻe Karistiano akā i hele mai ia mai ka ʻāina mai iā Al-Aldalus.

Ma ka ʻaoʻao ʻē aʻe, e like me kā mākou i ʻōlelo ai, ua loaʻa i ka pāʻina ʻo San Miguel kekahi mau hoʻolōʻihi i nā manawa ma hope o kona kūkulu ʻia ʻana. I waena o nā mea i mālama ʻia, ka hale kiaʻi romana nui mai ke kenekulia XNUMX e hoʻomalu nei i ka ʻaoʻao hema o ka paʻakikī.

Halepule

Akā, i waena o nā ʻāpana o ke kūkulu ʻia i mālama ʻia i kēia lā, ʻo ka halepule ka mea nui nui. Loaʻa mea kanu basilical a ua mahele ʻia i ʻekolu mau, a laila, hoʻokaʻawale ʻia e nā pio o ke kuʻuna hoaka lio Mahometa. Pēlā nō, ma waena o nā piko a me ke poʻo o ka luakini aia kekahi wahi kū i ke ʻano me he transept a e hoʻolilo ʻia ia na ke kahuna pule i nā ʻahaʻaina.

No kāna ʻāpana, i ke poʻo ʻekolu apses he hapalua ko loko ma loko, akā he huinahā waho. Hoʻohui ʻia, uhi ʻia kēia mau mea e hale hōʻikeʻike galani e like me nā mea āu e ʻike ai ma nā moseka ʻArabia he nui.

Ma waena o ka transept a me ke poʻo aia a ikonaika i hana ʻia e nā pou i ke ʻano o ke keʻa, i ka liturgy Hispanic, hūnā i ke kahuna mai ka poʻe kūʻiʻo i ka wā o ka hoʻolaʻa ʻana. He ʻano maʻamau kēia i mālama ʻia i loko o nā lituraria peninsular a hiki i ka wā i hānai ʻia ai ka Roma i ka makahiki ʻumikūmākahi. ʻO ka iconostasis ka mea kūkulu hale i hāʻawi i kēlā pilikino. ʻO ka maʻamau, he pale ia i hoʻonani ʻia me nā kumu haipule i hoʻokau ʻia i mua o ke kuahu. Hoʻomaka ia e hoʻohana ʻia i nā luakini Byzantine, mai kahi i hala i ke Komohana.

Nā hoaka lio o ka luakini

ʻIke kikoʻī o nā hoaka lio o San Miguel de Escalada

ʻO ka mea i waho, ua nele ka luakini i portico holomua, kahi mea maʻamau ma Asturian pre-Romanesque. He ʻaoʻao nā puka komo a ma kona ʻaoʻao komohana. Pololei, ma ka ʻaoʻao hema o ka halepule aia kahi hale hōʻikeʻike i hoʻopaʻa ʻia me nā hoaka lio e hoʻonani i ka holoʻokoʻa. ʻO kēia mea hana, kahi ma hope aku e like me ke kūkulu ʻia ʻana i ka kenekulia XNUMX, he ʻano like ia o nā luakini Asturian a e hoʻohana ākea ʻia ma ka kuhikuhipuʻuone romanesque.

E pili ana i nā kukui o ka hale pule, pili pū kekahi i nā hiʻohiʻona o nā heiau Karistiano ʻē aʻe. No laila, hoʻokō ʻia me nā puka aniani liʻiliʻi i ka paia lele o nā nave nui a me nā apses. ʻO ka hope, kākoʻo ʻia ka kaupaku i loko o ʻelua mau pae a loaʻa kahi pali me kahi ākea ākea.

Hale kiaʻi

ʻO ia ka mea kūkulu hope loa i hoʻohui ʻia i ka pā hale ʻo San Miguel de Escalada, i ka wā o ke kenekulia XNUMX. He mānoanoa kona buttresses a ʻekolu mau papahele. Komo ka loko i loko o ka puka me ka piʻo semicircular e lawe iā ʻoe i ka Kapela o San Fructuoso, ʻo Pantheon o Abbots kekahi.

Akā hōʻike nui ʻia ka pukaaniani ʻelua lio lio. He pīhoihoi kona alo no ka mea ʻo Romanesque ka hale kiaʻi. No laila, ʻaʻole hoʻohana ʻia kēia ʻano kakaka. Inā hana ʻia kēia, e hoʻohālike i ka mea i loaʻa ma ka ʻaoʻao komohana o ka luakini.

ʻO ka mea hoʻonani

ʻO ka hope, ʻo ka hoʻonani ʻana o San Miguel de Escalada waiwai loa no kona manawa. Loaʻa iā ia nā poʻo nui, nā frieze, nā lattices a me nā puka. No kā lākou kumu, nui nā mea kanu. ʻO kahi laʻana, puʻu, lau a me nā lāʻau pāma. Akā aia kekahi mau ʻano geometric e like me ka ulana ʻana a i ʻole nā ​​meshes a me nā holoholona, ​​e like me nā manu e ʻū ana i nā pūpū o ke kumu waina.

ʻO ka codex o San Miguel de Escalada

Ma kahi o ka makahiki 922, ka Abbot ʻO Victor, o ka hale mōneka Leonese e pili ana iā mākou, ua kauoha ʻia e hana i kahi codex e kope i ka 'Commentary on the Book of Revelation' mai ʻO Beatus o Liebana. ʻO ka hopena i kapa ʻia 'Pōmaikaʻi ʻo San Miguel de Escalada', pili i ka illuminator haku Makius. Eia nō naʻe, ʻaʻole i hana ʻia kēia codex i ka hale mōneka Leonese, akā ma kēlā ko San Salvador de Tábara, aia ma ke kaona ʻo Zamora o ka inoa like. I kēia manawa, mālama ʻia ka 'Beato de San Miguel de Escalada' i ka Waihona Puke o Morgan mai New York.

Hope o ka luakini

Hope o ka luakini Leon

Pehea e hiki ai iā San Miguel de Escalada

Aia kēia kia hoʻomanaʻo, e like me kā mākou e ʻōlelo nei, i ke kaona Leonese o Papahelu. ʻO ke ala wale nō e kiʻi ai i ka kia hoʻomanaʻo ma ke ala. Loaʻa iā ʻoe nā kaʻa ʻōhua mai ke kapikala o ka panalāʻau, akā ʻaʻole pinepine lākou. ʻO kā mākou ʻōlelo aʻo e hele ʻoe i loko kāu kaʻa ponoʻī.

Hana ia León, pono ʻoe e lawe i ka N-601 hoʻohui ia ke kūlanakauhale me Valladolid. I ke kiʻekiʻe o Villarente pono ʻoe e lawe i ka LE-213 ka mea e lawe iā ʻoe i Gradefes. Akā, ma mua o ke hiki ʻana i ke kapikala o ke kulanakauhale, pono ʻoe e lawe i ka hoʻololi i ka hema e hoʻolaha ana i ka mōneka.

I ka hopena, San Miguel de Escalada ʻO ia kekahi o nā hale ma mua o Romanesque ma Castile. Pili i kāna mau makahiki Asturian, ʻaʻole e waiho kāna nani iā ​​ʻoe me ka palaka. E hele a kipa iā ia.

Makemake ʻoe e puke i kahi alakaʻi?

Hoʻopili ka ʻike o ka ʻatikala i kā mākou kumumanaʻo o ka hoʻoponopono hoʻoponopono. E hōʻike i kahi kaomi hemahema ʻaneʻi.

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  1.   o Ionatana ia

    I ka wā i kūkulu ʻia ai ʻo San Miguel de Escalada, he kalana ʻo Castilla i ke aupuni o León, no laila ʻo nā mōneka Andalusian kahi a lākou i noho ai ma León. I kēia lā, aia kēia hale ma ka ʻāina León, ʻo Castilla y León, e like me ka inoa e hōʻike nei, aia ʻelua mau wahi. No laila ʻaʻole ka hale mōneka a ʻaʻole ʻo Castilian.
    Ma waho aʻe o nā hemahema o ka mōʻaukala a me nā hana noʻeau (ʻoiai ʻaʻole wau i kuhikuhi aku iā lākou), ke kanikau nei ʻaʻole i ʻōlelo ʻia ʻo Beato de Escalada (kahi pōhaku maoli), i kēia lā ma ka hale waihona puke Morgan a me ka hale hōʻikeʻike ma New York.

  2.   ʻO Valdabasta ia

    ʻO San Miguel de Escalada koʻu kaona a aia ma León! ʻaʻole ma Castilla! Makemake ʻoe i ka hoʻoponopono a me ke kākau ʻole ʻana i ia mau ʻōlelo lapuwale.