San Miguel de Escalada

San Miguel de Escalada ndi imodzi mwazikulu zisanachitike zachiroma a m'chigawo cha León. Unali nyumba ya amonke yopatulidwa mu 913 kuti ikhale ndi amonke kuchokera Córdoba, koma pakadali pano mpingo ndi kudalira kwina.

Ili m'chigawo cha Ophunzira, pafupifupi makilomita makumi awiri mphambu zisanu ndi ziwiri kuchokera kulikulu la León komanso ku Msewu wa Santiago. Nyumba ya amonkeyo inamangidwa pa tchalitchi chakale cha Visigoth chopatulidwira San San Miguel. Ngati mukufuna kudziwa zambiri zamtengo wapatali wamakedzana asanachitike, tikukupemphani kuti mupitirize kuwerenga.

Mbiri ya San Miguel de Escalada

M'chaka cha 912, gulu la amonke lotsogozedwa ndi Abbot Alfonso linafika m'dera lino la León. Pofunitsitsa kukhalabe komweko, adamanga chaka chimodzi nyumba yachifumu yomwe, kale mu 913, idzapatulidwa ndi bishopu Woyera Genadius waku Astorga.

Pakumanga kwake, adagwiritsa ntchito zida za zomangamanga zakale za Visigothic zomwe timakambirana. Izi zikuwonekerabe pa umodzi mwamakoma ake, pomwe mutha kuwona mawu olembedwa kuchokera kukachisi woyambirira. Kumbali yake, nyumba ya amonkeyi idakhala m'nthawi yabwino kwambiri m'zaka za zana la XNUMX, pomwe nthawi zina zida zomanga zinawonjezeredwa.

Kale mu XIX, ndi kulanda komwe kunayambitsidwa ndi Mendizábal pamatchalitchi, San Miguel de la Escalada adasiyidwa. Komabe, idabwezeretsedwanso kangapo ndipo, koyambirira kwa 1886, idalengezedwa Chipilala Chadziko.

Zithunzi zojambulidwa

Portico ya San Miguel de Escalada

Makhalidwe a San Miguel de Escalada

Monga tanena, zomangamanga izi zimayankha mikhalidwe ya luso lakale lachiroma. Ndiye kuti, momwemonso omwe amaperekera Santa Maria del Naranco o San Miguel de Lillo ku Oviedo. Mwachidule, imaphatikiza zinthu za Visigoth ndi zinthu zina za Mozarabic.

Komabe, akatswiri amakono amakonda kuyitcha kukhazikitsanso luso. Chifukwa chake, monga momwe mungaganizire, ndikuti idamangidwa ndi akhristu omwe anali kukhala m'malo a Castile omwe Asilamu adasiyidwa kuti awabwezeretse. Koma, popeza madera akumalire nthawi zonse amayendetsa olumikizana, kalembedwe kameneka kamakhalanso kolimba chinthu cha mozarabicIzi zikutanthauza kuti, chimodzimodzi ndi akhristu koma zomwe zidachokera kudera la Al-Aldalus.

Kumbali inayi, monga tanena kale, nyumba ya San Miguel idalandila zowonjezerapo kangapo pambuyo pomangidwa. Mwa zina zomwe zasungidwa, a nsanja yayikulu yachiroma kuyambira m'zaka za zana la XNUMX lomwe limalamulira gawo lakumwera kwa malo ovuta.

Mpingo

Koma, mwa zina mwa zomangamanga zomwe zasungidwa lero, tchalitchi ndichofunikira kwambiri. Khalani nawo chomera ndipo imagawidwa m'miyala itatu yomwe, imasiyanitsidwa ndi zipilala zachikhalidwe Mabwalo a akavalo Asilamu. Momwemonso, pakati pa ma naves ndi mutu wa kachisiyo pali malo oyerekeza omwe amagwira ntchito ngati patali ndikuti idakonzedwera atsogoleri achipembedzo pamwambo.

Kumbali yake, mutu umakhala ma apsi atatu omwe ali ozungulira mkati, koma akunja amakona anayi kunjaku. Kuphatikiza apo, izi zimaphimbidwa ndi magaloni ofanana ndi omwe mutha kuwona m'misikiti yambiri yachiarabu.

Pakati pa transept ndi mutu pali chinthaka zopangidwa ndi zipilala zooneka ngati mtanda zomwe, mu zikhulupiriro zaku Spain, zidabisa wansembeyo kwa okhulupilira pakupatulira. Umenewu unali mwambo wamwambo womwe udasungidwa mu mapemphero a peninsular mpaka pomwe wachiroma adalandiridwa m'zaka za zana la khumi ndi chimodzi. The iconostasis inali kamangidwe kamene kamapereka chinsinsi. Nthawi zambiri, chinsalucho chinali chokongoletsedwa ndi zojambula zachipembedzo zomwe zimayikidwa patsogolo pa guwa lansembe. Inayamba kugwiritsidwa ntchito mu akachisi a Byzantine, komwe idadutsa Kumadzulo.

Mabwalo a Horseshoe akachisi

Tsatanetsatane wazitsulo zazitali za akavalo a San Miguel de Escalada

Kunja kwakunja, kachisiyu alibe khonde lotsogola, china chodziwika ku Asturian pre-Romanesque. Zolowera ndizolowera komanso kumadzulo. Ndendende, kumwera kwa tchalitchi kuli malo ozungulira okhala ndi zipilala za akavalo zomwe zimakometsera zonse. Zinthu zomangazi, pambuyo pake momwe zidamangidwira m'zaka za zana la XNUMX, ndizofanananso ndi akachisi aku Asturian ndipo pambuyo pake adzagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri mu zomangamanga zachiroma.

Ponena za kuyatsa kwa tchalitchi, zimatsatiranso mawonekedwe akachisi ena achikhristu oyambilira. Chifukwa chake, zimakwaniritsidwa ndimazenera ang'onoang'ono pakhoma loyenda la nave yayikulu komanso apses. Pomaliza, denga limathandizika magawo awiri ndipo limatsetsereka.

Nsanja

Unali gawo lomaliza lomanga kuwonjezeredwa ku San Miguel de Escalada complex, koyambirira kwa zaka za zana la XNUMX. Lili ndi matako akuluakulu ndipo poyambirira linali ndi zipinda zitatu. Mkati mwake mumafikiridwa pakhomo ndi chikhomo chomwe chimakutengerani ku Chaputala cha San Fructuoso, yemwenso amadziwika kuti Pantheon of Abbots.

Koma imawunikira makamaka zenera lakuthwa kwazitsulo ziwiri. Kukhalapo kwake kuli kochititsa chidwi chifukwa nsanjayo ndi yachiroma. Chifukwa chake, uta wamtunduwu sunagwiritsidwenso ntchito. Ngati izi zidachitika, amayenera kutsanzira zomwe zimapezeka kumadzulo kwa kachisi.

Chokongoletsa

Pomaliza, kukongoletsa kwa San Miguel de Escalada ndi wolemera kwambiri panthawi yake. Amakhala ndi mitu, friezes, lattices ndi zitseko. Pazolinga zawo, ndiwo zamasamba ndizochuluka. Mwachitsanzo, magulu, masamba ndi mitengo ya kanjedza. Koma palinso mitundu ina yazomangamanga monga kuluka kapena mauna ndi nyama, monga mbalame zomwe zimakola m'magulu amphesa.

Codex ya San Miguel de Escalada

Cha m'ma 922, the Abbot Victor, ku nyumba ya amonke ku Leonese yomwe ikutidetsa nkhawa, adalamula kuti pakhale codex yomwe imafotokozera 'Commentary on the Book of Revelation' Beatus waku Liebana. Zotsatira zake zinali zotchedwa 'Wodalitsika ndi San Miguel de Escalada', otchulidwa ndi kuunikira kwakukulu Magius. Komabe, bukuli, mwachiwonekere, silinapangidwe kunyumba ya amonke ku Leonese, koma ku San Salvador de Tábara, yomwe ili m'tawuni ya Zamora ya dzina lomweli. Pakadali pano, 'Beato de San Miguel de Escalada' yasungidwa mu Laibulale ya Morgan kuchokera ku New York.

Kumbuyo kwa kachisi

Kumbuyo kwa kachisi wa Leon

Momwe mungafikire ku San Miguel de Escalada

Chipilalachi chili, monga tinanenera, m'boma la Leonese la Ophunzira. Njira yokhayo yofikira pachikumbutso ndi pamsewu. Muli ndi mabasi ochokera ku likulu la chigawochi, koma sakhala pafupipafupi. Upangiri wathu ndikuti lowani galimoto yanu yomwe.

Kuchita kuchokera León, muyenera kutenga fayilo ya N-601 yomwe imagwirizanitsa mzindawu ndi Valladolid. Kutalika kwa Villarente muyenera kutenga 213 zomwe zidzakutengerani ku Gradefes. Koma, musanafike likulu la tawuni, muyenera kutenga kupatuka kumanzere kulengeza amonke.

Pomaliza, San Miguel de Escalada Ndi amodzi mwa nyumba zikuluzikulu zisanachitike za Roma ku Castile. Zokhudzana ndimasiku ake achi Asturian, kukongola kwake sikungakusiyeni opanda chidwi. Pitilizani ndikuyendera.

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  1.   Pilar anati

    Anthu aku Castili akukhala m'malo olandilidwanso? Nyumba ya Castilian? Ngakhale ma Castilian omwe amakhala m'mayikowa, komanso si bwana wachinyumba cha Castile. Awa ndi León, dera la León osati Castilla. Ngati mukufuna kukonza zomwe mwasindikiza, anthu aku León adzathokoza kwambiri. Ndife okhutitsidwa ndi maina osalekeza, ndizabwino.

  2.   Jonathan anati

    San Miguel de Escalada itamangidwa, Castilla linali chigawo mu ufumu wa León, chifukwa chake amonke a Andalusi komwe adakhazikika anali ku León. Masiku ano, nyumbayi ili m'chigawo cha León, Castilla y León, monga dzina lake likusonyezera, ili ndi zigawo ziwiri. Chifukwa chake amonkewo sanali ndipo si Castilian.
    Kuphatikiza pa zolakwika zakale komanso zaluso (ngakhale sindinawafotokozere), ndizachidziwikire kuti Beato de Escalada sanatchulidwepo (mwala wamtengo wapatali), lero mulaibulale ya Morgan ndi nyumba yosungiramo zinthu zakale ku New York.

  3.   Zamgululi anati

    Tawuni yanga ndi San Miguel de Escalada ndipo ili ku León! osati ku Castilla! Kodi mumakonda kukonza osalemba zolemba zopanda pake.